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by 1 (bī)
Share:
prep.
1. Close to; next to: the window by the door.
2. With the use or help of; through: We came by the back road.
3. Up to and beyond; past: We drove by the house.
4. At or to: stopped by the bakery; came by the house.
5. In the period of; during: sleeping by day.
6. Not later than: by 5:30 PM.
7.
a. In the amount of: letters by the thousands.
b. To the extent of: shorter by two inches.
8.
a. According to: played by the rules.
b. With respect to: siblings by blood.
9. In the name of: swore by the Bible to tell the truth.
10. Through the agency or action of: was killed by a bullet.
11. Used to indicate a succession of specified individuals, groups, or quantities: One by one they left. They were persuaded little by little.
12.
a. Used in multiplication and division: Multiply 4 by 6 to get 24.
b. Used with measurements: a room 12 by 18 feet.
c. Toward. Used to express direction with points of the compass: south by east.
adv.
1. On hand; nearby: Stand by.
2. Aside; away: We put it by for later.
3. Up to, alongside, and past: The car raced by.
4. At or to one's home or current location: Stop by later today.
5. Into the past: as years go by.
Idiom:
by oneself
1. Without company; alone: went by herself.
2. Without help: wrote the book by myself.

[Middle English bi, be, from Old English bī, be; see ambhi in the Appendix of Indo-European roots.]

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2018 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 
by 2 (bī)
Share:
n.
Variant of bye1.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2018 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 
by- or bye-
Share:
pref.
1. By: bygone.
2. Secondary, incidental: byway.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2018 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 
BY
Share:
abbr.
budget year

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2018 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 

Indo-European & Semitic Roots Appendices

    Thousands of entries in the dictionary include etymologies that trace their origins back to reconstructed proto-languages. You can obtain more information about these forms in our online appendices:

    Indo-European Roots

    Semitic Roots

    The Indo-European appendix covers nearly half of the Indo-European roots that have left their mark on English words. A more complete treatment of Indo-European roots and the English words derived from them is available in our Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.

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