The capital of Azerbaijan on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Frequently under Persian rule, the city was annexed by Russia in 1806. It has been a center of oil production since the 1870s. In 1990 it was the scene of fierce fighting between Soviet forces and secessionist rebels.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Indo-European & Semitic Roots Appendices
Thousands of entries in the dictionary include etymologies that trace their origins back to reconstructed proto-languages. You can obtain more information about these forms in our online appendices:
The Indo-European appendix covers nearly half of the Indo-European roots that have left their mark on English words. A more complete treatment of Indo-European roots and the English words derived from them is available in our Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.