The American Heritage Dictionary Indo-European Roots AppendixFor instructions on how to use this appendix, please refer to the Guide to the Indo-European Roots Appendix.
The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots provides even greater detail on this subject.
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To, near, at.
To drive, draw, move. Oldest form *ag̑‑, becoming *ag‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include agony, ambiguous, demagogue, essay, and squat.
See also derivative agro-.
A day (considered as a span of time). Oldest form *ag̑h‑, becoming *agh‑ in centum languages.
Field. Probably a derivative of ag- . Oldest form *ag̑ro‑, becoming *agro‑ in centum languages.
To be master of, possess. Oldest form *h2eik̑‑, colored to *h2aik̑‑, becoming *aik̑‑ in satem languages and *aik‑ in centum languages.
Copy. Oldest form *h2eim‑, colored to *h2aim‑.
To wish, desire.
Vital force, life, long life, eternity; also "endowed with the acme of vital force, young." Oldest forms *h2eiw‑, *h2eyu‑, colored to *h2aiw‑, *h2ayu‑.
Derivatives include no1, ever, medieval, age, and eon.
See also derivative yeu-.
Sharp. Oldest form *h2ek̑‑, colored to *h2ak̑‑, becoming *ak̑‑ in satem languages and *ak‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include acute, hammer, heaven, eager1, vinegar, acid, and oxygen.
Beyond. Oldest form probably *h2el‑, colored to *h2al‑.
Derivatives include alarm, ultimate, else, alien, alibi, and parallel.
To grow, nourish.
Derivatives include old, haughty, altitude, enhance, alumnus, coalesce, and prolific.
All. Germanic and Celtic root.
Derivatives include elf, oaf, and albino.
In words related to sorcery, magic, possession, and intoxication.
Around. Probably derived from *ant-bhi, "from both sides" (see ant-).
To breathe. Oldest form *h2enh1‑, colored to *h2anh1‑.Suffixed form *h2anh1-mo‑.
Tight, painfully constricted, painful. Oldest form *ang̑h‑, becoming *angh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include anger, hangnail, and quinsy.
Spirit, demon. Oldest form *h2e/onsu‑, colored to *h2a/onsu‑.
Front, forehead. Oldest form *h2ent‑, colored to *h2ant‑
Derivatives include along, end, advance, and antique.
Derivatives include off, ebb, awkward, puny, and compote.
To fit together. Oldest form *h2erh1‑, colored to *h2arh1‑, with variant *h2reh1‑, becoming *rē‑.
Derivatives include army, harmony, inert, aristocracy, adorn, hatred, rite, arithmetic, and rhyme.
To shine; white; the shining or white metal, silver. Oldest form *h2(e)rg̑‑, colored to *h2(a)rg̑‑, becoming *arg̑‑ in satem languages and *arg‑ in centum languages.
To burn, glow. Oldest form *h2es‑, colored to *h2as‑.
Derivatives include arson, and azalea.
To go; with Germanic and Latin derivatives meaning a year (conceived as "the period gone through, the revolving year"). Suffixed form *at-no‑.
To perceive. Compound forms *au-dh‑, *awis-dh‑, "to place perception" (*dh‑, to place; see dhē-).
To increase. Oldest form *h2eug‑, colored to *h2aug‑. Variant *h2weg‑ becoming *(a)weg‑.
Derivatives include nickname, auction, and auxiliary.
Derivatives include east, Easter, and aurora.
Bird. Oldest form *h2ewi‑, colored to *h2awi‑.
Derivatives include aviation, bustard, ostrich, cockney, oval, and caviar.
An adult male relative other than one's father.
A metal, copper or bronze.
Staff used for support.
To shine. Oldest form *bheh2‑, colored to *bhah2‑, becoming *bhā‑.
Derivatives include beacon, berry, banner, fantasy, and phase.
To speak. Oldest form *bheh2‑, colored to *bhah2‑, becoming *bhā‑.
Derivatives include fate, infant, prophet, abandon, banish, symphony, confess, and blame.
To share out, apportion, also to get a share.
Arm. Oldest form *bhāg̑hu‑, becoming *bhāghu‑ in centum languages.
To strike. Oldest form *bheh2u‑, colored to *bhah2u‑, becoming *bhau‑.
Derivatives include beat, buttock, halibut, button, and refute.
To split; with Germanic derivatives referring to biting (hence also to eating and to hunting) and woodworking.
Derivatives include bite, bitter, and fission.
To trust, confide, persuade.
Derivatives include bide, fiancé, and infidel.
To shine, flash, burn; shining white and various bright colors.
Derivatives include blue, bleach, blind, blond, blanket, black, flagrant, and flame.
To blow, swell; with derivatives referring to various round objects and to the notion of tumescent masculinity.
Derivatives include boulevard, boulder, phallus, balloon, ballot, and fool.
The following derivatives of this root are entered separately: bhel-3, bhelgh-, bhleu-.
To thrive, bloom. Possibly from bhel-2.
Derivatives include foliage, blossom, flora, bleed, bless, and blade.
To swell. Extension of bhel-2 . Oldest form *bhelg̑h‑, becoming *bhelgh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include bind, bandanna, and bundle.
To carry; also to bear children.
Derivatives include birth, fertile, suffer, furtive, and metaphor.
To shine; bright, white. Oldest form *bherhxgibreve;‑, becoming *bherhxg‑ in centum languages.
To hide, protect. Oldest form *bherg̑h‑, becoming *bhergh‑ in centum languages.
High; with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts. Oldest form *bherg̑h‑, becoming *bhergh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include iceberg, bourgeois, burglar, force, and fortify.
To breathe. Probably imitative. Zero-grade form *bhs‑.
To be aware, to make aware.
Derivatives include bid, forbid, and Buddha.2
To be, exist, grow. Oldest form *bheuhx.
Derivatives include be, husband, imp, physics, future, neighbor, and beam.
To bend; with derivatives referring to bent, pliable, or curved objects.
Derivatives include bagel, buxom, and bog.
To blow. Contracted from *bhleh1‑, or possibly lengthened grade *bhlēh2‑ from alternative root *bhleh2‑. Possibly identical to bhel-3 II*bhlē‑ above.
Derivatives include blaze3, flatus, and flavor.
To swell, well up, overflow. Extension of bhel-2.
Brother, male agnate.
Derivatives include breach, fraction, frail1, infringe, and suffrage.
Also bhreuə‑, bhreəu-.
To boil, bubble, effervesce, burn; with derivatives referring to cooking and brewing. Oldest form *bhreuh1‑.
Derivatives include brew, bread, broth, brood, breed, ferment, and fervent.
Eyebrow. Oldest form *bhruhx‑, becoming *bhrū.
To divide. Oldest form *deh2‑, colored to *dah2‑, becoming *dā‑.
Derivatives include democracy, epidemic, demon, and time.
To divide. Northern Indo-European root extended from *da(h2)i‑ (see dā-).
Tear. Oldest form *dak̑ru‑, becoming *dakru‑ in centum languages.
Demonstrative stem, base of prepositions and adverbs.
To show, pronounce solemnly; also in derivatives referring to the directing of words or objects. Oldest form *deik̑‑, becoming *deik‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include teach, toe, addict, preach, judge, revenge, and disk.
To take, accept. Oldest form *dek̑‑, becoming *dek‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include decent, paradox, and disdain.
Ten. Oldest form *dek̑m̥, becoming *dekm̥ in centum languages.
Derivatives include ten, December, decimate, dean, hundred, century, and hecatomb.
See also compound root wīkm̥tī-.
Right (opposite left); hence, south (from the viewpoint of one facing east). Oldest form *dek̑s‑, becoming *deks‑ in centum languages. Suffixed form *deks(i)-tero‑.
Derivatives include linger, Lent, longitude, and lunge.
To recount, count. O-grade form *dol‑.
Derivatives include dome, domestic, and timber.
To constrain, force, especially to break in (horses). Oldest form *demh2‑.
Tooth. Originally *h1d-ent‑, "biting," present participle of ed- in the earlier meaning "to bite."
To split, peel, flay; with derivatives referring to skin and leather.
To see. Oldest form *derk̑‑, becoming *derk‑ in centum languages.
To be firm, solid, steadfast; hence specialized senses "wood," "tree," and derivatives referring to objects made of wood.
Derivatives include tree, trust, betroth, endure, and druid.
To lack, be wanting.
To do, perform, show favor, revere.
Derivatives include embellish, and dynamite.
Long (in duration). Oldest form *deuh2‑ with variant (metathesized) *dweh2‑, the latter colored to *dwah2‑, becoming *dwā‑. Suffixed zero-grade form *dū-ro‑ (< *duə-ro‑, oldest form *duh2-ro‑).
Derivatives include wanton, team, duke, subdue, and educate.
To set, put. Oldest form *dheh1‑, becoming *dhē‑.
Derivatives include deed, doom, fashion, defeat, feckless, sacrifice, satisfy, face, and synthesis.
To burn, warm.
To suck. Oldest form *dheh1(i)‑, becoming *dhē(i)‑.
Derivatives include female, fawn2, fetus, fennel, and affiliate.
To form, build. Oldest form *dheig̑h‑, becoming *dheigh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include dairy, lady, dough, and paradise.
To hold firmly, support.
Derivatives include infirmary, and throne.
To venture, be bold. O-grade form *dhors‑ and zero-grade form *dhr̥s‑.
Root of words in religious concepts. Oldest form *dheh1s‑, becoming *dhēs‑. Possibly an extension of dhē-.
Derivatives include feast, fanatic, atheism, and enthusiasm.
To die. Also dheuə- (oldest form *dheuh2‑).
To close, finish, come full circle. Oldest form *dheuh2‑. Probably related to dheu-2 , "to die."
To produce something of utility.
Earth. Oldest form *dhg̑hem‑, becoming *dhghem‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include bridegroom, chameleon, and homicide.
Yesterday. Oldest form *dhg̑h(y)es‑, becoming *dhgh(y)es‑ in centum languages. Suffixed (comparative) form *(dh)ghes-ter‑.
To stick, fix.
To draw, glide. Oldest form *dhreg̑‑, becoming *dhreg‑ in centum languages.
To drive, push; snow.
To fall, flow, drip, droop.
Derivatives include dreary, and drowse.
Daughter. Oldest form *dhugh2ter‑.
Door, doorway (usually in plural). Originally an ablauting noun *dhwor, *dhur‑, in the plural, designating the entrance to the enclosure (*dhwor-o‑) surrounding the house proper.
Derivatives include forest, and foreign.
To engage oneself. European root found in Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, and possibly Latin.
Tongue. Oldest form *dn̥g̑huh2‑, becoming *dn̥g̑hū‑ in satem languages and *dn̥ghū‑ in centum languages.
To give. Oldest form *deh3‑, colored to *doh3‑, becoming *dō‑.
Derivatives include betray, surrender, vend, dose, and antidote.
Bad, evil; mis- (used as a prefix). Derivative of deu-1.
Derivatives include twilight, biscuit, between, combine, diploma, and doubt.
To shine (and in many derivatives, "sky, heaven, god"). Zero-grades *dyu‑ and *diw‑.
Derivatives include Tuesday, divine, jovial, Jupiter, diary, dismal, journey, and psychedelic.
To eat; original meaning "to bite." Oldest form *h1ed‑.
See also derivative dent-.
I. Nominative form of the personal pronoun of the first person singular. Oldest form *eg̑, becoming *eg in centum languages. (For oblique forms see me-1).
Out. Oldest form *eg̑hs, becoming *eghs in centum languages.
Derivatives include strange, and extreme.
To drink. Oldest form *h1egwh‑.Suffixed lengthened-grade form *ēgwh-r-yo‑.
To go. Oldest form *h1ei‑, zero-grade *h1i‑.
Derivatives include ambition, perish, sudden, transit, ion, initial, janitor, and January.
In words denoting passion. Oldest form *h1eis‑ or possibly *h1eish2‑.
Horse. Probably to be segmented *ekw-o‑, a suffixed form akin to the lengthened o-grade adjective ōku- , swift. Oldest form h1ek̑wo‑, becoming ekwo‑ in centum languages.
To take, distribute.
Derivatives include inner, entrails, industry, and dysentery.
Near, at, against.
To move, set in motion. Oldest form *h1er‑.
Earth, ground. Extended form *ert‑.
To row. Oldest form *h1erh1‑.
To be in motion.
To be. Oldest form *h1es‑, zero-grade *h1s‑.
Derivatives include yes, soothe, sin1, essence, absent, and proud.
See also extension (e)su-.
Good. Oldest form *h1(e)su‑. Originally suffixed form of es-.
See also extension wes-2.
To leave, abandon, give out, whence nominal derivatives meaning abandoned, lacking, empty. Oldest form *h1euh2‑, zero-grade *h1uh2‑, with variant form *h1weh2‑, colored to *h1wah2‑, becoming *wā‑.
Udder. Related to wē-r-.
To call, shout.
To rejoice; also to have religious fear or awe. Oldest form *geh2u‑, colored to *gah2u‑, becoming *gau‑ (before consonants) and *gāw‑ (before vowels).
Cold; to freeze.
Derivatives include chill, jelly, and glacier.
Tooth, nail. Oldest form *g̑embh‑, becoming *gembh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include comb, unkempt, and gem.
To marry. Oldest form *g̑emh1‑, becoming *gemh1‑ in centum languages.
To give birth, beget; with derivatives referring to aspects and results of procreation and to familial and tribal groups. Oldest form *g̑enh1‑, becoming *genh1‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include kin, king, jaunty, genius, pregnant1, gingerly, and nature.
Knee; also angle. Oldest form *g̑enu‑, becoming *genu‑ in centum languages.
Jawbone, chin. Oldest form *g̑enu‑, becoming *genu‑ in centum languages.
To gather. Oldest form *h2ger‑.
Derivatives include carve, crawl1, and program.
To grow old. Oldest form *g̑erh2‑, becoming *gerh2‑ in centum languages.
To cry hoarsely; also the name of the crane. Oldest form *gerh2‑.
Derivatives include crack, cranberry, and pedigree.
To taste, choose. Oldest form *g̑eus‑, becoming *geus‑ in centum languages.
To give or receive.
Derivatives include give, able, malady, prohibit, duty, and endeavor.
Goose. Oldest form *g̑hans‑, becoming *ghans‑ in centum languages.
To release, let go; (in the middle voice) to be released, go. Oldest form *g̑heh1‑, becoming *g̑hē‑ in satem languages and *ghē‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include heir, and gait.
Theoretical base of *ghyem‑, *ghiem‑, winter. Oldest forms *g̑hei‑, *g̑hyem‑, *g̑hiem‑, becoming *ghei‑, *ghyem‑, *ghiem‑ in centum languages.
To shine; with derivatives referring to colors, bright materials, gold (probably "yellow metal"), and bile or gall. Oldest form *g̑hel‑, becoming *ghel‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include gold, arsenic, melancholy, Hare Krishna, gleam, glimpse, and glide.
To unite, join, fit.
To seize, take.
Derivatives include get, guess, prison, comprehend, surprise, and prey.
To grasp, enclose; with derivatives meaning "enclosure." Oldest form *g̑her‑, becoming *gher‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include orchard, kindergarten, courteous, choir, and choral.
To like, want. Oldest form *g̑her‑, becoming *gher‑ in centum languages.
Gut, entrail. Oldest form *g̑herh2‑, becoming *gherh2‑ in centum languages.
Hand. Oldest form *g̑hes‑, becoming *ghes‑ in centum languages.
Seen by some as a base for words meaning "thousand." Oldest form *g̑heslo‑, becoming *gheslo‑ in centum languages.
To pour, pour a libation. Oldest form *g̑heu‑, becoming *gheu‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include gut, funnel, fusion, and refund.1
To call, invoke. Oldest form *g̑heu(h2/3)‑, becoming *gheu(h2/3)‑ in centum languages. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghu-to‑, "the invoked," god.
Stranger, guest, host; properly "someone with whom one has reciprocal duties of hospitality."
To grow, become green. Contracted from *ghreh1‑.
To seize, reach.
To dig, bury, scratch.
To walk, go. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥dh-yo‑.
To rub. Oldest form *g̑hreh1i‑, with variant (metathesized) form *g̑hreih1‑, whence zero-grade *g̑hrih1‑, becoming *g̑hrī‑in satem language and *ghrī‑ in centum languages.
Wild beast. Oldest form *g̑hwer‑, becoming *ghwer‑ in centum languages.
Shame, also pudenda. Expressive root, found only in Tocharian (in the literal meaning) and Germanic.
To tear apart, cleave.
Derivatives include clever, and hieroglyphic.
To know. Oldest form *g̑neh3‑, colored to *g̑noh3‑, becoming *g̑nō‑ in satem languages and *gnō‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include know, cunning, uncouth, ignore, noble, diagnosis, and narrate.
Grain. Oldest form *g̑r̥h2-no‑, becoming *gr̥h2-no‑ in centum languages.
To go, come. Oldest form *gweh2‑, colored to *gwah2‑, becoming *gwā‑.
Derivatives include welcome, adventure, souvenir, acrobat, and diabetes.
To live. Also gweiə- (oldest form *gweih3‑, with metathesized variant *gwyeh3‑, colored to *gwyoh3‑, becoming *gwyō‑).
Derivatives include quick, vivid, vitamin, whiskey, amphibious, microbe, and hygiene.
To throw, reach, with further meaning to pierce. Oldest form *gwelh1‑, with metathesized variant *gwleh1‑, becoming *gwlē‑.
Derivatives include devil, emblem, metabolism, parliament, problem, symbol, ballet, and kill.1
Heavy. Oldest form *gwerh2‑.
Derivatives include grave2, grief, aggravate, baritone, guru, brute, and blitzkrieg.
To favor. Oldest form *gwerh2‑.
To say, speak.
To ask, pray.
To strike, kill.
Derivatives include bane, fence, and offend.
To heat, warm.
Derivatives include brand, brandy, forceps, and fornicate.
Thread, tendon. Oldest full-grade form *gwhyehx‑, with zero-grade form *gwhihx‑ becoming *gwhī‑.
To smell, breathe. Oldest form *gwhreh1‑, becoming *gwhrē.
Ox, bull, cow. Nominative singular form *gwōu-s.
Derivatives include cow1, beef, bugle1, and butter.
Derivatives include yonder, identity, and item.
To like, desire. Oldest form *keh2‑, colored to *kah2‑, becoming *kā‑.
To fall. Oldest form *k̑ad‑, becoming *kad‑ in centum languages.
To strike. Oldest form *keh2-id‑, colored to *kah2-id‑.
Heat. Extended form *kaid‑.
Whole, uninjured, of good omen.
Forest, uncultivated land.
To defecate. Root imitative of glottal closure during defecation.
Derivatives include have, heavy, cable, captive, deceive, capsule, and chassis.
Derivatives include hard, and cancer.
Gray. Oldest form *k̑as‑, becoming *kas‑ in centum languages.
To hew, strike.
To go, yield.
To lie; bed, couch; beloved, dear. Oldest form *k̑ei‑, becoming *kei‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include city, and cemetery.
To set in motion. Oldest form keih2‑.
Derivatives include resuscitate, and kinetic.
Excrement. Oldest form *k̑ekw‑, becoming *kekw‑ in centum languages. Suffixed o-grade form *kokw-ro‑.
To cover, conceal, save. Oldest form *k̑el‑, becoming *kel‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include hell, hole, holster, apocalypse, and eucalyptus.
To be prominent; hill.
Warm. Oldest form *k̑elh1‑, with metathesized variant *k̑leh1‑, becoming *k̑lē‑ in satem languages and *klē‑ in centum languages.
To shout. Oldest form *kelh2‑, with metathesized variant *kleh2‑, colored to *klah2‑, becoming *klā‑.
Derivatives include exclaim, haul, calendar, and class.
Fresh, new, young.
To gird, bind. Variant form *keng‑.
To proclaim, speak solemnly. Oldest form *k̑ens‑, becoming *kens‑ in centum languages. Suffixed form *kens-ē‑.
To prick, jab.
Horn, head; with derivatives referring to horned animals, horn-shaped objects, and projecting parts. Oldest form *k̑er‑, becoming *ker‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include horn, unicorn, hornet, reindeer, migraine, cheer, rhinoceros, and cerebrum.
To grow. Oldest form *k̑er‑, becoming *ker‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include cereal, Creole, concrete, and recruit.
Heart. Oldest form *k̑erd‑, becoming *kerd‑ in centum languages.
To mix, confuse, cook. Oldest form *k̑erh2‑, becoming *kerh2‑ in centum languages.
To gather, pluck, harvest. Variant *karp‑.
To run. Oldest form *k̑ers‑, becoming *kers‑ in centum languages. Zero-grade form *kr̥s‑.
To cut. Oldest form *k̑es‑, becoming *kes‑ in centum languages. Variant *kas‑.
To swell; vault, hole. Oldest form *k̑euhx‑, becoming *keuhx‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include cave, excavate, and church.
To lean. Oldest form *k̑lei‑, becoming *klei‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include decline, climax, climate, and ladder.
To hear. Oldest form *k̑leu‑, becoming *kleu‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include leer, loud, and Hercules.
Stem of demonstrative pronoun meaning "this. " Oldest form *k̑o‑, becoming *ko‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include he1, et cetera, and behind.
To sharpen, whet. Oldest form *k̑eə3‑, colored to *k̑oə3‑, contracted to *k̑ō‑ (becoming *kō‑ in centum languages).
To suit, fit, succeed.
Beside, near, by, with.
Derivatives include enough, handiwork, and country.
To hang. Oldest form *k̑onk‑, becoming *konk‑ in centum languages.
War; also war-band, host, army.
Bone. Probably related to ost-.
To hear. Oldest form *h2kous‑.
To sieve, discriminate, distinguish.
Derivatives include garble, crime, certain, excrement, crisis, and hypocrisy.
Raw flesh. Oldest form *kreuh2‑.
To begin to freeze, form a crust.
Preposition and preverb meaning "with."
To pay, atone, compensate. Suffixed o-grade form *kwoi-nā‑.
To pile up, build, make. O-grade form *kwoi‑.
To rest, be quiet. Oldest forms *kweih1‑, *kwyeh1‑.
Derivatives include while, coy, and requiem.
White; to shine. Oldest form *k̑weit‑, becoming *kweit‑ in centum languages.
To revolve, move around, sojourn, dwell. Oldest forms kwel‑, kwelh2‑.
Derivatives include colony, cult, wheel, cyclone, pulley, and bucolic.
Far (in space and time).
Holy. Oldest form *k̑wen‑, becoming *kwen‑ in centum languages.
To pant, wheeze. Oldest form *k̑wes‑, becoming *kwes‑ in centum languages.
To shake. Contracted from *kweə1t‑. Zero-grade form *kwət‑, becoming *kwat‑.
Derivatives include four, squad, quarantine, and farthing.
Stem of relative and interrogative pronouns.
Derivatives include who, whether, either, quorum, quip, and quality.
Dog. Oldest form *k̑won‑, becoming *kwon‑ in centum languages.
Body, form, appearance. Probably a verbal root meaning "to appear."
Salmon. Suffixed form *laks-o‑.
To be eager, wanton, or unruly.
Gain, profit. Oldest form *leh2u‑, colored to *lah2u‑.
To let go, slacken. Contracted from *leə1‑.
To lick; lip.
To collect; with derivatives meaning "to speak. " Oldest form *leg̑‑, becoming *leg‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include leech1, lecture, legend, intelligent, sacrilege, loyal, and logic.
To lie, lay.
Derivatives include ledge, lair, beleaguer, lees, law, and fellow.
Light, having little weight.
Derivatives include levity, carnival, elevate, leprechaun, and lung.
Derivatives include slime, slick, and oblivion.
To play, jest. Suffixed o-grade form *loid-o‑.
To bind. Oldest form *leig̑‑, becoming *leig‑ in centum languages.
To lick. Oldest form *leig̑h‑, becoming *leigh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include eclipse, loan, and derelict.
To stick, adhere; fat.
Derivatives include life, and liver.1
To go forth, die.
To loosen, divide, cut apart.
Derivatives include forlorn, analysis, and solve.
To care, desire; love.
Derivatives include livelong, belief, and libido.
To mount up, grow. Oldest form *h1leudh‑.
To wash. Oldest form *leu(h3)‑.
To tell a lie.
Derivatives include light1, illuminate, lunatic, lucid, and lynx.
Body, form; like, same. Germanic root.
Derivatives include alike, each, and frolic.
Good; with derivatives meaning "occurring at a good moment, timely, seasonable, early. " Oldest form *meh2‑, colored to *mah2‑, becoming *mā‑.
Mother. A linguistic near-universal found in many of the world's languages, often in reduplicated form.
To knead, fashion, fit. Oldest forms *mag̑‑, *mak̑‑, becoming *mag‑, *mak‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include make, mason, mingle, magma, and mass.
To be able, have power.
Derivatives include dismay, might1, machine, and magic.
Young person of either sex. Suffixed form *magho-ti‑.
Long, thin. Oldest form *meh2k̑‑, colored to *mah2k̑‑, becoming *māk̑ in satem languages and *māk‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include manacle, maneuver, and manure.
Mother. Based ultimately on the baby-talk form mā-2 , with the kinship term suffix *-ter‑.
Derivatives include mother1, matrix, and matter.
Oblique form of the personal pronoun of the first person singular. For the nominative see eg.
In the middle of.
See also medhyo-.
Expressing certain qualities of mind. Oldest form *meh1‑.
To measure. Oldest form *meh1‑.
Derivatives include piecemeal, immense, meter1, geometry, moon, and semester.
Big. Oldest form *meh1‑.
To cut down grass or grain with a sickle or scythe. Oldest form *meh1‑.
To take appropriate measures.
Derivatives include medicine, modest, modern, commodity, and empty.
Honey; also mead.
Derivatives include middle, medieval, and meridian.
See also me-2.
Great. Oldest form *meg̑‑, becoming *meg‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include much, magnate, mayor, maestro, and maharajah.
To change, go, move; with derivatives referring to the exchange of goods and services within a society as regulated by custom or law.
Derivatives include mad, molt, mutate, mistake, communism, amoeba, and migrate.
Derivatives include menu, mince, minestrone, and minister.
To urinate. Oldest form *meig̑h‑, becoming *meigh‑ in centum languages.
To mix. Oldest forms *meik̑‑, *meig̑‑, becoming *meik‑, *meig‑ in centum languages.
Soft; with derivatives referring to soft or softened materials of various kinds.
False, bad, wrong.
To crush, grind; with derivatives referring to various ground or crumbling substances (such as flour) and to instruments for grinding or crushing (such as millstones). Oldest form *melh2‑.
To rub off; also to milk. Oldest form *h2melg̑‑, becoming *h2melg‑ in centum languages.
To think; with derivatives referring to various qualities and states of mind and thought.
Derivatives include mind, mention, automatic, mania, money, monster, mosaic, music, and amnesia.
Derivatives include mouth, menace, and mountain.
To remain. Variant suffixed (stative) form *man-ē‑.
To learn. Zero-grade form *mn̥dh‑.
To rub away, harm.
Derivatives include nightmare, morsel, morbid, mortal, mortgage, and ambrosia.
Boundary, border. Oldest form *merg̑‑, becoming *merg‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include marquee, demarcation, and margin.
To push away.
Body of water; lake (?), sea (?).
Short. Oldest form *mreg̑h-u‑, becoming *mregh-u‑ in centum languages.
A mouse; also a muscle (from the resemblance of a flexing muscle to the movements of a mouse).
Boat. Oldest form *neh2u‑, colored to *nah2u‑, becoming *nau‑ (before consonants) and *nāw‑ (before vowels).
Derivatives include naughty, never, nothing, annul, nice, annihilate, negligee, deny, and renegade.
To bind, tie.
Death. Oldest form *nek̑‑, becoming *nek‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include nuisance, innocent, and nectarine.
To reach, attain. Oldest form *nek̑‑, becoming *nek‑ in centum languages.
Night (perhaps originally "twilight, twilight of the morning and evening" as opposed to *kwsep‑, "the dark of the night"). Probably from a verbal root *negw‑, to be dark, be night. O-grade form *nokw-t‑.
To assign, allot; also to take.
Derivatives include numb, nemesis, and nomad.
Grandson, nephew. Feminine *neptī‑.
Under, also on the left; hence, with an eastward orientation, north. Suffixed zero-grade form *nr̥-t(r)o‑.
Man; basic sense "vigorous, vital, strong."
To return safely home.
Oblique cases of the personal pronoun of the first person plural. For the nominative see we-.
New. Related to nu-.
Derivatives include neon, and nova.
Navel; later also "central knob," boss of a shield, hub of a wheel. Oldest form *h3nobh‑, variant *h3ombh‑ (< *h3onbh‑).
Nail, claw. Oldest forms *h3nogh‑, *h3ongh‑.
Name. Oldest form *h1no(h3)-mn̥, zero-grade form *h1n̥(h3)-men‑.
Now. Related to newo-.
Derivatives include once, atone, union, universe, and any.
To take along, fetch. Oldest form h3eit‑, colored to h3oit‑.
Eight. Oldest form *ok̑tō(u), becoming *oktō(u) in centum languages.
Swift. Oldest form *ōk̑u‑, becoming *ōku‑ in centum languages.
See also ekwo-.
To see. Oldest form *h3ekw‑, colored to *h3okw‑, zero-grade *h3kw‑.
Derivatives include eye, daisy, window, inoculate, and autopsy.
To work, produce in abundance. Oldest form *h3ep‑, colored to *h3op‑.
Derivatives include opera1, maneuver, manure, opulent, and cornucopia.
Large bird. Oldest form *h3er‑, colored to *h3or‑.
To turn, with derivatives referring to change of change allegiance or status. Oldest form *h3erbh‑, colored *h3orbh‑. Suffixed form *orbh-o‑, "bereft of father," also "deprived of free status."
Mouth. Oldest form *h3ōs‑, but precise preform uncertain.
Bone. Oldest form *h2ost‑, with e-grade *h2est‑ colored to *h2ast‑.
Ear. Oldest form *h2ous‑, with e-grade *h2eus‑ colored to *h2aus‑.
Sheep. Oldest form *h2owi‑.
To protect, feed. Oldest form *peh2‑, colored to *pah2‑, becoming *pā‑.
Derivatives include fodder, forage, fur, food, foster, pasture, pantry, and company.
Fire. Oldest form *peh2wr̥, colored to *pah2wr̥, with zero-grade *ph2ur‑ metathesized to *puh2r‑. Zero-grade form *pūr‑ (from *puh2r‑).
To fasten. Oldest forms *pag̑‑, *pak̑‑, becoming *pag‑, *pak‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include fang, peace, pact, palisade, and travel.