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The American Heritage Dictionary Indo-European Roots Appendix

For instructions on how to use this appendix, please refer to the Guide to the Indo-European Roots Appendix.

The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots provides even greater detail on this subject.

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To, near, at.
    1. at; atone, twit, from Old English æt, near, by, at;
    2. ado, from Old Norse at. Both a and b from Germanic *at.
  1. ad-, -ad; adjuvant, aid, amount, paramount, from Latin ad, ad‑, to, toward.
  2. Celtic *ad‑, to, at, in compound *to-ad-ni-sed‑ (see sed-).
[Pokorny 1. ad‑ 3.]

To drive, draw, move. Oldest form *ag̑‑, becoming *ag‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include agony, ambiguous, demagogue, essay, and squat.
  1. act, active, actor, actual, actuary, actuate, agendum, agent, agile, agitate; allege, ambage, ambiguous, assay, cache, coagulum, cogent, essay, exact, exacta, examine, exigent, exiguous, fumigate, fustigate, intransigent, levigate, litigate, navigate, objurgate, prodigal, redact, retroactive, squat, transact, variegate, from Latin agere, to do, act, drive, conduct, lead, weigh.
  2. -agogue, agony; anagoge, antagonize, choragus, demagogue, epact, glucagon, hypnagogic, mystagogue, pedagogue, protagonist, stratagem, synagogue, from Greek agein, to drive, lead, weigh.
  3. Suffixed form *ag-to‑. ambassador, embassage, embassy, from Latin ambactus, servant, from Celtic *amb(i)-ag-to‑, "one who goes around" (*ambi, around; see ambhi).
  4. Suffixed form *ag-ti‑, whence adjective *ag-ty-o‑, "weighty." axiom; axiology, chronaxie, from Greek axios, worth, worthy, of like value, weighing as much.
  5. Possibly suffixed form *ag-ro‑, driving, pursuing, grabbing. pellagra, podagra, from Greek agrā, a seizing.
  6. O-grade suffixed form *og-mo‑, furrow, track, metaphorically "incised line." ogham, from Old Irish Ogma (from Celtic *Ogmios), name of a Celtic god and traditional inventor of the ogham alphabet.
[Pokorny ag̑‑ 4.]
See also derivative agro-.

A day (considered as a span of time). Oldest form *ag̑h‑, becoming *agh‑ in centum languages.
  1. day; daisy, today, from Old English dæg, day;
  2. Landtag, from Old High German tag, day;
  3. dawn, from Old English denominative dagian, to dawn. a-c all from Germanic *dagaz (with initial d‑ of obscure origin), day.
[Pokorny ā̆g̑her‑ 7.]

Field. Probably a derivative of ag- . Oldest form *ag̑ro‑, becoming *agro‑ in centum languages.
  1. acre, from Old English æcer, field, acre, from Germanic *akraz.
  2. aerie, agrarian; agriculture, peregrine, pilgrim, from Latin ager (genitive agrī), earlier *agros, district, property, field.
  3. agria, agro-; agrostology, onager, stavesacre, from Greek agros, field, and agrios, wild.
[In Pokorny ag̑‑ 4.]

To be master of, possess. Oldest form *h2eik̑‑, colored to *h2aik̑‑, becoming *aik̑‑ in satem languages and *aik‑ in centum languages.
  1. ought1, owe, from Old English āgan, to possess, from Germanic *aigan, to possess.
    1. own, from Old English āgen, one's own;
    2. eigenvalue, eigenvector, from Old High German eigan, one's own. Both a and b from Germanic participial form *aiganaz, possessed, owned.
  2. fraught, freight, from Middle Low German and Middle Dutch vrecht, vracht, "earnings," hire for a ship, freight, from Germanic prefixed form *fra-aihtiz, absolute possession, property (*fra‑, intensive prefix; see per1).
  3. Reduplicated zero-grade (perfect) form *h2e-h2ik‑, remade to *h2i-h2ik‑ (> *īk‑). Ganesh, from Sanskrit īṣṭe, he rules over.
[Pokorny ēik‑ 298.]

Copy. Oldest form *h2eim‑, colored to *h2aim‑.
  1. Suffixed full-grade form *aim-olo‑. emulate, emulous, from Latin aemulus, emulous.
  2. Zero-grade form *h2im‑.
    1. imitate; inimitable, from Latin imitāre, to imitate, from suffixed form *im-eto‑;
    2. image, imagine, imago, from Latin imāgō, image.
[Not in Pokorny; compare Hittite ḫimma‑, ritual substitute.]

To wish, desire.
Oldest form *h2eis‑, colored to *h2ais‑. Suffixed form *ais-sk‑. ask, from Old English āscian, ācsian, to ask, seek, from Germanic *aiskōn.
[Pokorny 1. ais‑ 16.]

Also ayu-.
Vital force, life, long life, eternity; also "endowed with the acme of vital force, young." Oldest forms *h2eiw‑, *h2eyu‑, colored to *h2aiw‑, *h2ayu‑.
Derivatives include no1, ever, medieval, age, and eon.
    1. no1, from Old English ā, ever;
    2. aught1, from Old English āwiht, āuht, anything, "ever a creature";
    3. ever; every, never, from Old English ǣfre (second element obscure), ever;
    4. aye2; nay, from Old Norse ei, ever. a, c, and d all from extended Germanic form *aiwi; b from Germanic *aiwi + *wihti, "ever a thing, anything" (*wihti‑, thing; see wekti-).
  1. Suffixed form *aiw-ā‑. echt, from Middle Low German echte, true, legitimate, akin to Old High German ēohaft, according to custom, from ēwa, custom, right (< "what is eternal, what endures") + -haft, having (a characteristic) (see kap-).
    1. Suffixed form *aiw-o‑. coeval, longevity, medieval, primeval, from Latin aevum, age, eternity;
    2. further suffixed form *aiwo-tā(ti)‑. age; coetaneous, from Latin aetās (stem aetāti‑), age;
    3. further suffixed form *aiwo-t-erno‑. eternal, eterne, eternity; sempiternal, from Latin aeternus, eternal.
  2. Suffixed form *aiw-en‑. eon, from Greek aiōn, age, vital force.
  3. Zero-grade form *yu‑ (earlier *h2yu‑) in compound *h2yu-gwih3-es‑, "having a vigorous life" (*gwih3-es‑, life; see gwei-). hygiene, from Greek hugiēs, healthy.
  4. O-grade form *oyu‑ (earlier *h2oyu‑).
    1. utopia, from Greek ou, not, variant of ouk, probably from a pre-Greek phrase *(ne) oyu (kwid), "(not on your) life" (ne, not, and *kwid, finite pronoun used as emphasizing particle; see ne, kwo-);
    2. Ayurveda, from Sanskrit āyuḥ, life, health, from suffixed form *oyu-s‑.
[Pokorny aiu̯‑ 17.]
See also derivative yeu-.

Sharp. Oldest form *h2ek̑‑, colored to *h2ak̑‑, becoming *ak̑‑ in satem languages and *ak‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include acute, hammer, heaven, eager1, vinegar, acid, and oxygen.
  1. Suffixed form *ak-yā‑.
    1. edge; selvage, from Old English ecg, sharp side, from Germanic *agjō;
    2. egg2, from Old Norse eggja, to incite, goad, from Germanic *agjan.
  2. Suffixed form *ak-u‑.
    1. ear2, from Old English æhher, ēar, spike, ear of grain, from Germanic *ahuz‑;
    2. acicula, acuity, aculeate, acumen, acupuncture, acute, aglet, ague, eglantine, from Latin acus, needle;
    3. acerose, from Latin acus, chaff.
  3. Suffixed form *ak-i‑. acidanthera, from Greek akis, needle.
  4. Suffixed form *ak-men‑, stone, sharp stone used as a tool, with metathetic variant *ka-men‑, with variant *ka-mer‑.
    1. hammer, from Old English hamor;
    2. hamerkop, from Middle Dutch hamer, hammer. Both a and b from Germanic *hamaraz.
    3. probable variant *ke-men-.heaven, from Old English heofon, hefn, heaven, from Germanic *hibin‑, "the stony vault of heaven," dissimilated form of *himin‑.
  5. Suffixed form *ak-onā‑, independently created in:
    1. awn, from Old Norse ögn, ear of grain, and Old English agen, ear of grain, from Germanic *aganō; and;
    2. paragon, from Greek akonē, whetstone.
  6. Also built to the root form *ak‑ with a suffix containing -n‑ (although the formation is obscure) is Sanskrit aśani‑, arrowhead, thunderbolt: anaconda.
  7. Suffixed lengthened form *āk-ri‑. acerate, acrid, acrimony, eager1; carvacrol, vinegar, from Latin ācer, sharp, bitter.
  8. Suffixed form *ak-ri-bhwo‑. acerbic, exacerbate, from Latin acerbus, bitter, sharp, tart.
  9. Suffixed (stative) form *ak-ē‑. acid, from Latin acēre, to be sharp.
  10. Suffixed form *ak-ēto‑. acetabulum, acetic, acetum; ester, from Latin acētum, vinegar.
  11. Suffixed form *ak-mā‑. acme, acne, from Greek akmē, point.
  12. Suffixed form *ak-ro‑. acro-; acrobat, acromion, from Greek akros, topmost.
  13. O-grade form *ok‑ (from earlier *h2ok‑) in suffixed form *ok-ri‑. mediocre, from Latin ocris, rugged mountain.
  14. Suffixed o-grade form *ok-su‑. amphioxus, oxalis, oxygen, oxytone, oxyuriasis, paroxysm, from Greek oxus, sharp, sour.
[Pokorny 2. ak̑‑ 18, 3.k̑em‑ 556.]

  1. ait; island, from Old English īg, īeg, island, from Germanic *aujō, "thing on the water," from *agwjō.
  2. aqua, aquarelle, aquarium, aquatic, aqui-, ewer, gouache; agua fresca, aguardiente, aquamarine, aquatint, aquavit, aqueduct, sewer1, from Latin aqua, water.
[Pokorny akā‑ 23.]

Beyond. Oldest form probably *h2el‑, colored to *h2al‑.
Derivatives include alarm, ultimate, else, alien, alibi, and parallel.
  1. O-grade form *ol‑ (earlier *h2ol‑), "beyond."
    1. Compound forms *ol-se‑, *ol-so‑ (*so‑, pronominal stem; see so-). alarm, alert, alfresco, alligator, El Niño, hoopla, lagniappe, langue d'oïl, lariat, voilà, from Latin ille (feminine illa, neuter illud), "yonder," that, from Archaic Latin ollus;
    2. suffixed forms *ol-s, *ol-tero‑. outré, ulterior, ultimate, ultra-, utterance2, from Latin uls, *ulter, ultrā, beyond.
  2. Suffixed form *al-tero‑, "other of two."
    1. alter, altercate, alterity, alternate, altruism; subaltern, from Latin alter, other, other of two;
    2. adulterate, adulterine, adultery, from Latin adulterāre, to commit adultery with, pollute, probably from the phrase ad alterum, "(approaching) another (unlawfully)" (ad, to; see ad-);
    3. variant suffixed form *an-tero‑, "other (of two)." other, from Old English ōther, from Germanic *antharaz.
  3. Suffixed form *al-eno‑. Aranyaka, from Sanskrit araṇa‑, foreign.
  4. Extended form *alyo‑, "other of more than two."
    1. else; eldritch, from Old English el‑, elles, else, otherwise, from Germanic *aljaz (with adverbial suffix);
    2. alias, alien; alibi, aliquot, hidalgo, from Latin alius, other of more than two;
    3. allo-; allegory, allelomorph, allelopathy, morphallaxis, parallax, parallel, trophallaxis, from Greek allos, other.
[Pokorny 1. al‑ 24, 37.]

To grow, nourish.
Derivatives include old, haughty, altitude, enhance, alumnus, coalesce, and prolific.
  1. Suffixed (participial) form *al-to‑, "grown."
      1. alderman, old, from Old English eald, ald, old;
      2. elder1, from Old English (comparative) ieldra, eldra, older, elder;
      3. eldest, from Old English (superlative) ieldesta, eldesta, eldest;
      4. Germanic compound *wer-ald‑ (see wī-ro-). a-d all from Germanic *alda‑.
    1. alt1, alto, haughty, hawser; altimeter, altiplano, altitude, altocumulus, altostratus, enhance, exalt, hautboy, from Latin altus, high ("grown tall"), deep.
  2. Suffixed form *al-mo‑. alma mater, from Latin almus, nurturing, nourishing.
  3. Suffixed form *al-o‑. adolescent, adult, alible, aliment, alimony, altricial, alumnus; coalesce, from Latin alere, to nourish, and alumnus, fosterling, step-child, originally a participle of alere ("being nourished," < *al-o-mno‑).
  4. Suffixed (causative) form *ol-eye‑. abolish, from Latin abolēre, to retard the growth of, abolish (ab‑, from; see apo-).
  5. Compound form *pro-al‑ (pro‑, forth; see per1). proletarian, proliferous, prolific, from Latin prōlēs, offspring.
  6. Extended form *aldh‑. althea, from Greek althein, althainein, to get well.
[Pokorny 2. al‑ 26.]

All. Germanic and Celtic root.
  1. Suffixed form *al-na‑.
    1. all; albeit, already, also, although, always, as1, from Old English all, eall, eal‑, al‑, all;
    2. Althing, from Old Norse allr, all. Both a and b from Germanic *allaz.
  2. Germanic *ala‑, all, in compound *Ala-manniz (see man-1).
[In Pokorny 1. al‑ 24.]

Derivatives include elf, oaf, and albino.
  1. Possibly Germanic *albiz, *albaz, elf, if meaning "white ghostly apparition."
    1. elf, from Old English ælf, elf;
    2. oaf, from Old Norse alfr, elf;
    3. Erl-king, from Danish elv, elf;
    4. Oberon, from Old French Auberon, from a source akin to Old High German Alberich.
  2. elfin, elven, from Old English -elfen, elf, possibly from Germanic *albinjō.
  3. abele, alb, albedo, albescent, albino, albite, album, albumen, aubade, auburn; daub, from Latin albus, white.
[Pokorny albho‑ 30.]

In words related to sorcery, magic, possession, and intoxication.
Suffixed form *alu-t‑. ale, from Old English ealu, from Germanic *aluth‑.
[Pokorny alu‑ 33.]

Also m̥bhi.
Around. Probably derived from *ant-bhi, "from both sides" (see ant-).
  1. Reduced form *bhi.
    1. by1; abaft, but, from Old English bi, , be, by;
    2. be-, from Old English be‑, on all sides, be‑, also intensive prefix;
    3. beleaguer, from Middle Dutch bie, by;
    4. bivouac, from Old High German bi, by, at. a-d all from Germanic *bi, *bi‑ (intensive prefix).
    1. Ember Day, from Old English ymbe, around;
    2. ombudsman, from Old Norse um(b), about, around;
    3. umlaut, from Old High German umbi, around. a-c all from Germanic *umbi.
    1. ambi-, from Latin ambi‑, around, about;
    2. alley1, alley-oop, ambulance, ambulate, andante; funambulist, perambulate, preamble, from Latin amb‑, around, about, in ambulāre, to go about, walk (*alāre, to go).
  2. amphi-, from Greek amphi, around, about.
  3. Celtic *ambi, around, in compound *amb(i)-ag-to‑ (see ag-).
[Pokorny ambhi 34.]

  1. Extended form *ana.
      1. on; acknowledge, alike, from Old English an, on, a, on, and prefixed on‑;
      2. aloft, amiss, from Old Norse ā, in, on;
      3. anlage, Anschluss, from Old High German ana‑, on;
      4. onslaught, from Middle Dutch aen, on. a-d all from Germanic *ana, *anō.
    1. ana2, ana-, from Greek ana, on, up, at the rate of.
  2. Variant form *no. naprapathy, from Old Church Slavonic na, in, on, to, from Slavic *na.
[Pokorny 4. an 39.]

To breathe. Oldest form *h2enh1, colored to *h2anh1.Suffixed form *h2anh1-mo‑.
  1. anima, animadvert, animal, animate, animato, animism, animosity, animus; equanimity, longanimity, magnanimous, pusillanimous, unanimous, from Latin animus, reason, mind, spirit, and anima, soul, spirit, life, breath;
  2. anemo-, anemone, from Greek anemos, wind.
[Pokorny 3. an(ə)‑ 38.]

Tight, painfully constricted, painful. Oldest form *ang̑h‑, becoming *angh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include anger, hangnail, and quinsy.
  1. agnail, hangnail, from Old English ang-nægl, "painful spike (in the flesh)," corn, excrescence (nægl, spike; see nogh-), from Germanic *ang‑, compressed, hard, painful.
  2. Suffixed form *angh-os‑. anger, from Old Norse angr, sorrow, grief, from Germanic *angaz.
  3. Suffixed form *angh-os-ti‑. angst1, from Old High German angust, anxiety, from Germanic *angusti‑.
  4. anxious, from Latin angere, to strangle, torment.
  5. Suffixed form *angh-os-to‑. anguish, from Latin angustus, narrow.
  6. quinsy, from Greek ankhein, to squeeze, embrace.
  7. angina, from Greek ankhonē, a strangling.
[Pokorny ang̑h‑ 42.]

Spirit, demon. Oldest form *h2e/onsu‑, colored to *h2a/onsu‑.
  1. Aesir; Asgard, from Old Norse āss, god, from Germanic *ansu‑.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *n̥su-ro‑. Ahura Mazda, Ormazd, from Avestan ahura‑, spirit, lord.
[Pokorny ansu‑ 48.]

Front, forehead. Oldest form *h2ent‑, colored to *h2ant‑
Derivatives include along, end, advance, and antique.
  1. Inflected form (locative singular) *anti, "against," with derivatives meaning in front of, before; also end.
    1. un-2; along, from Old English and‑, indicating opposition, from Germanic *andi‑ and *anda‑.
    2. end, from Old English ende, end, from Germanic *andja‑.
    3. ancient1, ante, ante-, anterior; advance, advantage, vanguard, from Latin ante, before, in front of, against.
    4. anti-; enantiomer, enantiomorph, from Greek anti, against, and enantios, opposite.
    5. Compound form *anti-əkwo‑ (from earlier *h2anti-h3kwo‑) "appearing before, having prior aspect" (*h3kw, appearance; see okw-). antic, antique, from Latin antīquus, former, antique.
    6. Reduced form *n̥ti‑.
      1. until, from Old Norse und, until, unto;
      2. elope, from Middle Dutch ont‑, away from. Both a and b from Germanic *und‑.
    7. Variant form *anto‑. Vedanta, from Sanskrit antaḥ, end.
  2. Probable inflected form (ablative plural) *ant-bhi, "from both sides," whence *ambhi, around. See ambhi.
[Pokorny ant-s 48.]

Also ap-.
Off, away.
Derivatives include off, ebb, awkward, puny, and compote.
    1. of, off, offal, from Old English of, æf, off;
    2. ebb, from Old English ebba, low tide;
    3. ablaut, from Old High German aba, off, away from;
    4. aft; abaft, from Old English æftan, behind, from Germanic *aftan‑. a-d all from Germanic *af.
  1. ab-1, from Latin ab, ab‑, away from.
  2. apo-, from Greek apo, away from, from.
  3. Suffixed (comparative) form *ap(o)-tero‑. after, from Old English æfter, after, behind, from Germanic *aftar‑.
  4. Suffixed form *ap-t-is‑. eftsoons, from Old English eft, again, from Germanic *aftiz.
  5. Suffixed form *apu-ko‑. awkward, from Old Norse öfugr, turned backward, from Germanic *afug‑.
  6. Possible variant root form *po(s), on, in.
    1. pogrom, from Russian po, at, by, next to;
    2. post-, posterior; postmortem, preposterous, puisne, puny, from Latin post, behind, back, afterward;
    3. apposite, apposition, apropos, component, compose, composite, composition, compost, compote, compound1, contrapposto, depone, deposit, dispose, exponent, expose, expound, impose, impost1, impost2, interpose, juxtapose, oppose, position, positive, post2, post3, postiche, posture, preposition1, propose, provost, punt3, reposit, suppose, transpose, from Latin pōnere, to put, place, from *po-s(i)nere (sinere, to leave, let; of obscure origin).
[Pokorny apo‑ 53.]

Also arə-.
To fit together. Oldest form *h2erh1, colored to *h2arh1, with variant *h2reh1, becoming *rē‑.
Derivatives include army, harmony, inert, aristocracy, adorn, hatred, rite, arithmetic, and rhyme.
  1. Basic form *arə.
    1. Suffixed form ar(ə)-mo‑.
      1. arm1, from Old English earm, arm, from Germanic *armaz;
      2. ambry, arm2, armada, armadillo, armature, armoire, army; alarm, disarm, gendarme, from Latin arma, tools, arms;
      3. armillary sphere, from Latin armus, upper arm.
    2. Suffixed form *ar(ə)-smo‑. harmony, from Greek harmos, joint, shoulder.
    3. Suffixed form *ar(ə)-ti‑.
      1. art1, artisan, artist; inert, inertia, from Latin ars (stem art‑), art, skill, craft;
      2. further suffixed form *ar(ə)-ti-o‑. artiodactyl, from Greek artios, fitting, even.
    4. Suffixed form *ar(ə)-tu‑. article, from Latin artus, joint.
    5. Suffixed form *ar(ə)-to‑. coarctate, from Latin artus, tight.
    6. Suffixed form *ar(ə)-dhro‑. arthro-; anarthrous, diarthrosis, dysarthria, enarthrosis, synarthrosis, from Greek arthron, joint.
    7. Suffixed (superlative) form *ar(ə)-isto‑. aristocracy, from Greek aristos, best.
  2. Possibly suffixed lengthened o-grade form (or separate root) *ōrə-dh‑.
    1. ordain, order, ordinal, ordinance, ordinary, ordinate, ordo; coordination, inordinate, subordinate, from Latin ōrdō, order (originally a row of threads in a loom).
    2. exordium, primordial, from Latin ōrdīrī, to begin to weave.
    3. ornament, ornate; adorn, suborn, from Latin ōrnāre, to adorn.
  3. Variant *rē‑ (< earlier *h2reh1).
    1. rate1, ratio, ration, reason; arraign, from Latin rērī, to consider, confirm, ratify.
    2. Suffixed form *rē-dh‑.
        1. read, rede; dread, from Old English rǣdan, to advise;
        2. hatred, kindred, from Old English rǣden, -rǣden, condition. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *rēdan.
        1. rathskeller, from Old High German rāt, counsel;
        2. riddle2, from Old English rǣdels(e), opinion, riddle. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *rēdaz.
    3. Zero-grade form *rə‑. Germanic *radam, number, in dialectal North and West Germanic compound *hund(a)-rada‑ (see dekm̥).
  4. Variant root form *h2reh1i‑, with zero-grades *h2rh1i‑ and (metathesized) *h2rih1, the latter contracted to *rī‑.
    1. Suffixed metathesized zero-grade form *rī-tu‑. rite, from Latin rītus, rite, custom, usage.
    2. Suffixed unmetathesized zero-grade form *ərəi-dhmo‑. arithmetic, logarithm, from Greek arithmos, number, amount.
    3. rhyme, from a Germanic source akin to Old High German rīm, number, series.
[Pokorny 1. ar‑ 55.]

To shine; white; the shining or white metal, silver. Oldest form *h2(e)rg̑‑, colored to *h2(a)rg̑‑, becoming *arg̑‑ in satem languages and *arg‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *arg-ent‑. argent, argentine, from Latin argentum, silver.
  2. Suffixed form *arg-i-l(l)‑. argil, from Greek argillos, white clay.
  3. Suffixed form *arg-u-ro‑. litharge, pyrargyrite, from Greek arguros, silver.
  4. Suffixed form *arg-u-no‑. Arjuna, from Sanskrit arjunaḥ, bright, white, silvery.
  5. Suffixed form *arg-i-n‑. arginine, from Greek arginoeis, brilliant, bright-shining.
  6. Suffixed form *arg-u‑, brilliant, clear. argue, from Latin denominative arguere, to make clear, demonstrate (< *argu-yo‑).
  7. Suffixed zero-grade form *ər̥g-ro‑, becoming *arg-ro‑. agrimony, possibly from Greek argos, white (< *argros).
  8. Suffixed zero-grade form *ər̥g-ro‑, becoming *arg-ro‑. agrimony, possibly from Greek argos, white (< *argros).
[Pokorny ar(e)-g̑‑ 64.]

To burn, glow. Oldest form *h2es‑, colored to *h2as‑.
Derivatives include arson, and azalea.
  1. Extended form *asg‑.
    1. ash1, from Old English æsce, asce, ash;
    2. potassium, from Middle Dutch asche, ash. Both a and b from Germanic *askōn‑.
  2. Suffixed form *ās-ā‑. Ara, from Latin āra, altar, hearth.
  3. Suffixed (stative) form *ās-ē‑.
    1. arid, from Latin āridus, dry, parched, from ārēre, to be dry;
    2. ardent, ardor, arson, from Latin ārdēre, to burn, be on fire, from āridus, parched.
  4. Extended form *asd‑.
    1. zamia, from Greek azein, to dry;
    2. azalea, from Greek azaleos, dry.
[Pokorny ā̆s‑ 68.]

To go; with Germanic and Latin derivatives meaning a year (conceived as "the period gone through, the revolving year"). Suffixed form *at-no‑.
annals, annual, annuity; anniversary, biennium, decennium, millennium, perennial, quadrennium, quinceañera, quindecennial, quinquennium, septennial, sexennial, superannuated, triennium, vicennial, from Latin annus, year.
[Pokorny at‑ 69.]

  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ātr-o‑. atrabilious, from Latin āter (feminine ātra), black (< "blackened by fire").
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *ātr-yo‑. atrium, from Latin ātrium, forecourt, hall, atrium (perhaps originally the place where the smoke from the hearth escaped through a hole in the roof).
  3. Compound shortened zero-grade form *atro-əkw, "black-looking" (*əkw, "looking"; see okw-). atrocious, from Latin ā̆trōx, frightful.
  4. Basic form *āter. zircon, from Old Persian *ātar, fire (stem āç‑ attested in month name āçiyādiya, "(month) of fire-worship"), from Indo-Iranian *ātar.
  5. Possibly, but obscurely related to this root is Sanskrit atharvā, atharvan‑, priest (-van‑, possessive suffix): Atharva-Veda.
[Pokorny āt(e)r‑ 69.]

To perceive. Compound forms *au-dh‑, *awis-dh‑, "to place perception" (*dh‑, to place; see dhē-).
  1. Suffixed form *awisdh-yo‑ or *audh-yo‑. audible, audience, audile, audio-, audit, audition, auditor, auditorium, auditory, oyez; obey, subaudition, from Latin audīre, to hear.
  2. aesthetic; anesthesia, from Greek aisthanesthai, to feel.
[Pokorny 8. au̯‑ 78.]

To increase. Oldest form *h2eug‑, colored to *h2aug‑. Variant *h2weg‑ becoming *(a)weg‑.
Derivatives include nickname, auction, and auxiliary.
    1. eke1, from Old English ēacan, ēcan, to increase;
    2. nickname, from Old English ēaca, an addition. Both a and b from Germanic *aukan.
  1. Variant (metathesized) form *weg‑ (from *əweg‑), extended to *wegs‑ (o-grade *wogs‑).
    1. wax2; woodwaxen, from Old English weaxan, to grow, from Germanic *wahsan;
    2. waist, from Old English *wæst, growth, hence perhaps waist, size, from Germanic *wahs-tu‑.
  2. Form *aug-ē‑. auction, augend, augment, author, authorize, from Latin augēre, to increase.
  3. augur; inaugurate, from Latin augur, diviner (< "he who obtains favorable presage" < "divine favor, increase").
  4. august, from Latin augustus, majestic, august.
  5. Suffixed form *aug-s‑.
    1. auxiliary, from Latin auxilium, aid, support, assistance;
    2. auxin, auxesis, from Greek auxein, auxanein, to increase.
[Pokorny au̯eg‑ 84.]

To shine.
Derivatives include east, Easter, and aurora.
    1. east, from Old English ēast, east (< "the direction of the sunrise");
    2. ostmark, from Old High German ōstan, east. Both a and b from Germanic *aust‑.
    1. eastern, from Old English ēasterne, eastern;
    2. Ostrogoth, from Late Latin ostro‑, eastern. Both a and b from Germanic *austra‑.
  1. Easter, from Old English ēastre, Easter, from Germanic *austrōn‑, dawn.
  2. Possibly in Latin auster, the south wind, formally identical to the Germanic forms in 2 and 3, but the semantics are unclear austral, Austro-1.
  3. Probably suffixed form *ausōs‑, dawn, also Indo-European goddess of the dawn.
    1. aurora, from Latin aurōra, dawn;
    2. eo-, Eos; eosin, from Greek ēōs, dawn.
[Pokorny au̯es‑ 86.]

Bird. Oldest form *h2ewi‑, colored to *h2awi‑.
Derivatives include aviation, bustard, ostrich, cockney, oval, and caviar.
    1. avian, aviary, aviation; aviculture, avifauna, bustard, ocarina, osprey, ostrich, from Latin avis, bird.
    2. Compound *awi-spek‑, "observer of birds" (*spek‑, to see; see spek-). auspice, from Latin auspex, augur.
  1. Possible derivatives are the Indo-European words for egg, *ōwyo‑, *ōyyo‑.
      1. cockney, from Old English ǣg, egg;
      2. egg1, from Old Norse egg, egg. Both a and b from Germanic *ajja(m).
    1. oval, ovary, ovate, ovi-, ovolo, ovule, ovum, from Latin ōvum, egg.
    2. oo-; avgolemono, bottarga, from Greek ōion, egg.
    3. caviar, from a source akin to Middle Persian khāyak, egg, from Old Iranian *āvyaka‑, diminutive of *avya‑.
[Pokorny au̯ei‑ 86.]

An adult male relative other than one's father.
  1. atavism, from Latin avus, grandfather.
  2. avuncular, uncle, from Latin avunculus, maternal uncle.
  3. ayah, from Latin avia, grandmother.
[Pokorny au̯o-s 89.]

Day, morning.
    1. early, ere, or2, from Old English ǣr, before;
    2. or2, from Old Norse ār, before. Both a and b from Germanic *airiz.
  1. erst, from Old English ǣrest, earliest, from Germanic (superlative) *airistaz.
[Pokorny ā̆i̯er‑ 12.]

A metal, copper or bronze.
aeneous, era, from Latin aes, bronze, money.
[Pokorny ai̯os‑ 15.]

Staff used for support.
    1. bacillus, baculum, baguette, bail4, bailey; baculiform, debacle, imbecile, from Latin baculum, rod, walking stick;
    2. Possibly Latin imbēcillus, imbecillus, feeble, possibly from *in-bacillus , "without a staff (to steady oneself), without support," from bacillus, diminutive of baculum (in‑, not; see ne). imbecile.
  1. bacterium; corynebacterium, from Greek baktron, staff.
[Pokorny bak‑ 93.]

  1. Suffixed o-grade form *bol-iyo‑. Bolshevik, from Russian bol'shoĭ, large.
  2. Prefixed form *dē-bel-i‑, "without strength" (dē‑, privative prefix; see de-). debilitate, debility, from Latin dēbilis, weak.
[Pokorny 2. bel‑ 96.]

To shine. Oldest form *bheh2, colored to *bhah2, becoming *bhā‑.
Derivatives include beacon, berry, banner, fantasy, and phase.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-w‑.
    1. beacon, from Old English bēac(e)n, beacon;
    2. beckon, from Old English bēcnan, bīecnan, to make a sign, beckon, from Germanic denominative *bauknjan;
    3. buoy, from Old French boue, buoy. a-c all from Germanic *baukna‑, beacon, signal.
  2. Perhaps Germanic *bazja‑, berry (< "bright-colored fruit").
    1. berry; mulberry, from Old English berie, berige, berry, and Old High German beri, berry;
    2. frambesia, from Old French framboise, raspberry, alteration of Frankish *brām-besi, "bramble berry.".
    1. bandoleer, from Spanish banda, sash;
    2. banderilla, banderole, banner, banneret1, banneret2, from Late Latin bandum, banner, standard. Both a and b from Germanic *bandwa‑, "identifying sign," banner, standard, sash, also "company united under a (particular) banner.".
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-w-es‑. phos-, phot, photo-; phosphorus, from Greek phōs (stem phōt‑), light.
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-w‑. Phaëthon, from Greek phaeithein, to shine, burn.
  5. Extended and suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-n-yo‑. fantasy, pant1, -phane, phantasm, phantom, phase, pheno-, phenomenon; diaphanous, emphasis, epiphany, glaucophane, hierophant, phaneritic, phanerogam, Phanerozoic, phantasmagoria, phosphene, sycophant, theophany, tiffany, from Greek phainein, "to bring to light," cause to appear, show, and phainesthai (passive), "to be brought to light," appear, with zero-grade noun phasis (*bhə-ti‑), an appearance.
[Pokorny 1. bhā‑ 104.]

To speak. Oldest form *bheh2, colored to *bhah2, becoming *bhā‑.
Derivatives include fate, infant, prophet, abandon, banish, symphony, confess, and blame.
  1. fable, fabliau, fabulous, fado, fairy, fandango, fate, fay2; affable, fantoccini, ineffable, infant, infantry, preface, from Latin fārī, to speak.
  2. -phasia; apophasis, prophet, from Greek phanai, to speak.
    1. ban1, from Old English bannan, to summon, proclaim, and Old Norse banna, to prohibit, curse;
    2. banal, banns; abandon, from Old French ban, feudal jurisdiction, summons to military service, proclamation, Old French bandon, power, and Old English gebann, proclamation;
    3. banish, from Old French banir, to banish;
    4. contraband, from Late Latin bannus, bannum, proclamation;
    5. bandit, from Italian bandire, to proclaim, proscribe, banish. a-e all from Germanic suffixed form *ban-wan, *bannan, to speak publicly (used of particular kinds of proclamation in feudal or prefeudal custom; "to proclaim under penalty, summon to the levy, declare outlaw").
  3. Suffixed form *bhā-ni‑.
    1. boon1, from Old Norse bōn, prayer, request;
    2. bee1, perhaps from Old English bēn, prayer, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse bōn, prayer. Both a and b from Germanic *bōni‑.
  4. Suffixed form *bhā-ma.
    1. fame, famous; defame, infamous, from Latin fāma, talk, reputation, fame;
    2. euphemism, Polyphemus, from Greek phēmē, saying, speech.
  5. Suffixed o-grade form *bhō-nā‑. phone2, -phone, phoneme, phonetic, phono-, -phony; anthem, antiphon, aphonia, cacophonous, euphony, symphony, from Greek phōnē, voice, sound, and (denominative) phōnein, to speak.
  6. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-to‑. confess, profess, from Latin fatērī, to acknowledge, admit.
  7. blame, blaspheme, from Greek blasphēmos, blasphemous, perhaps from *ml̥s-bhā-mo‑, "speaking evil" (blas‑, evil; see mel-3).
[Pokorny 2. bhā‑ 105.]

Broad bean.
  1. fava bean, favela, from Latin faba, broad bean.
  2. Variant form *bha-un‑. bean, from Old English bēan, broad bean, bean of any kind, from Germanic *baunō.
  3. Possible suffixed form *bha-ko‑. phacoemulsification, from Greek phakos, lentil.
  4. Variant form *bha-bho‑. bupkis, from a Slavic source akin to Polish bób and Russian bob, lentil.
[Pokorny bhabhā 106.]

  1. better1, from Old English betera, better, from Germanic (comparative) *batizō.
  2. best, from Old English bet(e)st, best, from Germanic (superlative) *batistaz.
  3. boot2, from Old English bōt, remedy, aid, from Germanic noun *bōtō.
  4. batten1, ultimately from Old Norse batna, to improve, from Germanic verb *batnan, to become better.
[Pokorny bhā̆d‑ 106.]

To share out, apportion, also to get a share.
  1. -phage, -phagia, phago-, -phagous; esophagus, from Greek phagein, to eat (< "to have a share of food").
  2. porgy, from Greek phagros, whetstone ("eater, that eats metal"), also a name for the sea bream, from Greek suffixed form *phag-ro‑.
  3. nebbish, from a Slavic source akin to Czech neboh, poor, unfortunate, from Common Slavic *ne-bogŭ, poor ("un-endowed").
  4. pagoda; Bhagavad-Gita, from Sanskrit bhagaḥ, good fortune.
  5. bhakti, from Sanskrit bhajati, he apportions.
  6. Extended form *bhags‑. baksheesh, buckshee, from Persian bakhshīdan, to give, from Avestan bakhsh‑.
[Pokorny 1. bhag‑ 107.]

Arm. Oldest form *bhāg̑hu‑, becoming *bhāghu‑ in centum languages.
bough, from Old English bōg, bōh, bough, from Germanic *bōguz.
[Pokorny bhāghú-s (misprint for bhāg̑hú-s ) 108.]

Beech tree.
    1. book1, from Old English bōc, written document, composition;
    2. buckwheat, from Middle Dutch boek, beech;
    3. Bokmål, from Norwegian bok, book. a-c all from Germanic *bōkō, beech, also "beech staff for carving runes on" (an early Germanic writing device).
  1. beech, from Old English bēce, beech, from Germanic *bōkjōn‑.
[Pokorny bhāgó-s 107.]

  1. beard, from Old English beard, beard, from Germanic *bardaz.
  2. halberd, from Old High German barta, beard, ax, from Germanic *bardō, beard, also hatchet, broadax.
  3. barb1, barbel1, barbellate, barber, barbette, barbicel, barbule, barbut, bichon; rebarbative, from Latin barba, beard.
[Pokorny bhardhā 110.]

Also bhars-.
    1. barn, from Old English bere, barley, from Germanic *bariz‑;
    2. barley, from Old English bærlic, barley-like, barley, from Germanic *barz‑.
  1. farina, farinaceous, farraginous, farrago, farro, from Latin far (stem farr‑), spelt, grain.
[Pokorny bhares‑ 111.]

To strike. Oldest form *bheh2u‑, colored to *bhah2u‑, becoming *bhau‑.
Derivatives include beat, buttock, halibut, button, and refute.
  1. beat, from Old English bēatan, to beat, from Germanic *bautan.
  2. beetle3; battledore, from Old English bȳtl, hammer, mallet, from Germanic *bautilaz, hammer.
  3. baste3, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse beysta, to beat, denominative from Germanic *baut-sti‑.
  4. buttock, from Old English diminutive buttuc, end, strip of land, from Germanic *būtaz.
    1. halibut, from Middle Dutch butte, flatfish;
    2. turbot, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Swedish but, flatfish. Both a and b from Germanic *butt‑, name for a flatfish.
  5. bouton, butt1, button, buttress; abut, rebut, sackbut, from Old French bo(u)ter, to strike, push, from Germanic *buttan.
  6. Variant zero-grade form *bhū‑ (< *bhuə‑, metathesized from *bhəu‑). Suffixed form *bhū-t-ā‑.
    1. confute, from Latin cōnfūtāre, to check, suppress, restrain (com‑, intensive prefix; see kom);
    2. refute, from Latin refūtāre, to drive back, rebut (re‑, back; see re-).
  7. Possibly reduced suffixed form *bhu-tu‑ (*bhəu‑) footle; clafoutis, from Latin futuere, to have intercourse with (a woman).
[Pokorny 1. bhā̆u‑ 112.]

To run.
  1. beck2, from Old Norse bekkr, a stream, from Germanic *bakjaz, a stream.
  2. -phobe, -phobia, from Greek phobos, panic, flight, fear, from phebesthai, to flee in terror.
[Pokorny bheg 116.]

A bee.
bee1, from Old English bēo, a bee, from Germanic suffixed form *bīōn‑.
[Pokorny bhei‑ 116.]

To split; with Germanic derivatives referring to biting (hence also to eating and to hunting) and woodworking.
Derivatives include bite, bitter, and fission.
    1. beetle1, bite, from Old English bītan, to bite;
    2. tsimmes, from Old High German bīzan, bizzan, to bite. Both a and b from Germanic *bītan.
  1. Zero-grade form *bhid‑.
    1. bit2, from Old English bite, a bite, sting, from Germanic *bitiz;
      1. bit1, from Old English bita, a piece bitten off, morsel;
      2. bitt, from a Germanic source akin to Old Norse biti, bit, crossbeam;
      3. pizza, from Italian pizza, pizza, from a Germanic source akin to Old High German bizzo, pizzo, bite, morsel. (i)-(iii) all from Germanic *bitōn‑;
      4. pita, from Medieval Greek pita, perhaps from Gothic *bita, bite, morsel. (i)-(iv) all from Germanic *bitōn‑.
    2. suffixed form *bhid-ro‑. bitter, from Old English bit(t)er, "biting," sharp, bitter.
  2. O-grade form *bhoid‑.
    1. bait1, from Old Norse beita (verb), to hunt with dogs, and beita (noun), pasture, food;
    2. abet, from Old French beter, to harass with dogs. Both a and b from Germanic *baitjan.
  3. giblets, from Old French gibiez, game, from Germanic *gabaiti‑ (*ga‑, collective prefix; see kom).
  4. bateau, boat; boatswain, from Old English bāt, boat, from Germanic *bait‑, a boat (< "dugout canoe" or "split planking").
  5. Nasalized zero-grade form *bhi-n-d‑. -fid, fissi-, fissile, fission, fissure, vent2, from Latin findere, to split.
[Pokorny bheid‑ 116.]

To trust, confide, persuade.
Derivatives include bide, fiancé, and infidel.
  1. Probably Germanic *bīdan, to await (< "to await trustingly, expect, trust") abide, abode, from Old English bīdan, to wait, stay.
  2. fiancé, fiducial, fiduciary; affiance, affiant, affidavit, confidant, confide, confident, defiance, defy, diffident, from Latin fīdere, to trust, confide, and fīdus, faithful.
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *bhoidh-es‑. federal, federate; confederate, from Latin foedus (stem foeder‑), treaty, league.
  4. Zero-grade form *bhidh‑. faith, fay3, fealty, fideism, fidelity; infidel, perfidy, from Latin fidēs, faith, trust.
[Pokorny 1. bheidh‑ 117.]

To shine, flash, burn; shining white and various bright colors.
Derivatives include blue, bleach, blind, blond, blanket, black, flagrant, and flame.
  1. Suffixed full-grade form *bhel-o‑.
      1. beluga, from Russian belyĭ, white;
      2. Beltane, from Scottish Gaelic bealltainn, from Old Irish beltaine, "fire of Bel" (ten, tene, fire), from Bel, name of a pagan Irish deity akin to the Gaulish divine name Belenos, from Celtic *bel-o‑.
    1. phalarope, from Greek phalaros, having a white spot.
    2. phalaenopsis, from Greek phallaina, moth (< *"white creature").
  2. Extended root *bhleə1, contracted to *bhlē‑.
    1. Suffixed form *bhlē-wo‑. blue, from Old French bleu, blue, from Germanic *blēwaz, blue.
    2. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhl̥ə-wo‑. flavescent, flavo-; flavin, flavone, flavoprotein, from Latin flāvus, golden or reddish yellow.
  3. Various extended Germanic forms.
    1. bleach, from Old English blǣcan, to bleach, from Germanic *blaikjan, to make white.
    2. bleak1, from Old Norse bleikr, shining, white, from Germanic *blaikaz, shining, white.
    3. blitzkrieg, from Old High German blëcchazzen, to flash, lighten, from Germanic *blikkatjan.
      1. blaze1, from Old English blæse, torch, bright fire;
      2. blesbok, from Middle Dutch bles, white spot;
      3. blemish, from Old French ble(s)mir, to make pale. a-c all from Germanic *blas‑, shining, white.
      1. blind; blindfold, purblind, from Old English blind, blind;
      2. blende, from Old High German blentan, to blind, deceive;
      3. blend, from Old Norse blanda, to mix;
      4. blond, from Old French blond, blond. a-d all from Germanic *blendaz, clouded, and *bland‑, *bland-ja‑, to mix, mingle (< "make cloudy").
      1. blench1, from Old English blencan, to deceive;
      2. blanch, blank, blanket; blancmange, Pinot Blanc, from Old French blanc, white. Both a and b from Germanic *blenk‑, *blank‑, to shine, dazzle, blind.
    4. blush, from Old English blyscan, to glow red, from Germanic *blisk‑, to shine, burn.
  4. Extended root *bhleg‑, to shine, flash, burn.
    1. O-grade form bhlog‑. black, from Old English blæc, black, from Germanic *blakaz, burned.
    2. Zero-grade form *bhl̥g‑.
      1. fulgent, fulgurate; effulgent, foudroyant, refulgent, from Latin fulgēre, to flash, shine, and fulgur, lightning;
      2. fulminate, from Latin fulmen (< *fulg-men), lightning, thunderbolt.
      1. flagrant; conflagrant, conflagration, deflagrate, from Latin flagrāre, to blaze;
      2. chamise, flambé, flambeau, flamboyant, flame, flamingo, flammable; inflame, from Latin flamma (< *flag-ma), a flame.
    3. phlegm, phlegmatic, Phlegethon, from Greek phlegein, to burn.
    4. O-grade form *bhlog‑. phlogiston, phlox; phlogopite, from Greek phlox, a flame, also a wallflower.
[Pokorny 1. bhel‑ 118,bheleg‑ 124,bhleu-(k)‑ 159.]

To blow, swell; with derivatives referring to various round objects and to the notion of tumescent masculinity.
Derivatives include boulevard, boulder, phallus, balloon, ballot, and fool.
  1. Zero-grade form bhl̥‑.
    1. bowl1, from Old English bolla, pot, bowl;
    2. bole1, from Old Norse bolr, tree trunk;
    3. bulk, from Old Norse bulki, cargo (< "rolled-up load");
    4. rocambole, from Old High German bolla, ball;
    5. boulevard, bulwark, from Middle High German bole, beam, plank;
    6. boll, from Middle Dutch bolle, round object;
    7. biltong, from Middle Dutch bille, buttock;
    8. boulder, from a Scandinavian source akin to Swedish bullersten, "rounded stone," boulder, from *buller‑, "round object." a-h all from Germanic *bul‑.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhl̥-n‑.
    1. bull1, from Old Norse boli, bull, from Germanic *bullōn‑;
    2. bullock, from Old English bulluc, bull, from Germanic *bulluka‑;
    3. phallus; ithyphallic, from Greek phallos, phallus;
    4. possibly Latin fullō, a fuller full2; refoulement.
  3. O-grade form *bhol‑.
    1. bollock, bollix, from Old English beallucas, testicles;
    2. ball1, from Old English *beall, ball;
    3. foosball, from Old High German bal, ball;
    4. bilberry, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Danish bolle, round roll;
    5. balloon, ballot, ballottement, from Italian dialectal balla, ball;
    6. pall-mall, from Italian palla, ball;
    7. bale1, from Old French bale, rolled-up bundle. a-g all from Germanic *ball‑.
  4. Possibly suffixed o-grade form *bhol-to‑.
    1. bold, from Old English bald, beald, bold;
    2. bawd, from Old Saxon bald, bold;
    3. Balder, from Old Norse ballr, baldr, brave. a-c from Germanic *balthaz, bold.
  5. Suffixed o-grade form *bhol-n‑. fils2, follicle, folly, fool, from Latin follis, bellows, inflated ball.
  6. Possibly Greek phal(l)aina, whale baleen.
  7. Conceivably from this root (but more likely unrelated) is Greek phellos, cork, cork oak phellem; phelloderm, phellogen.
[Pokorny 3. bhel‑ 120.]
The following derivatives of this root are entered separately: bhel-3, bhelgh-, bhleu-.

To thrive, bloom. Possibly from bhel-2.
Derivatives include foliage, blossom, flora, bleed, bless, and blade.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *bhol-yo‑, leaf.
    1. foil2, foliage, folio, folium; cinquefoil, defoliate, exfoliate, feuilleton, milfoil, perfoliate, portfolio, trefoil, from Latin folium, leaf.
    2. -phyll, phyllo-, -phyllous; anthophyllite, chervil, gillyflower, podophyllin, from Greek phullon, leaf.
  2. Extended form *bhlē‑ (< *bhleə‑).
    1. O-grade form *bhlō‑.
      1. Suffixed form *bhlō-w‑. blow3, from Old English blōwan, to flower, from Germanic *blō-w‑;
        1. bloom1, from Old Norse blōm, blōmi, flower, blossom;
        2. bloom2, from Old English blōma, a hammered ingot of iron (semantic development obscure). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic suffixed form *blō-mōn‑.
      2. blossom, from Old English blōstm, blōstma, flower, blossom, from Germanic suffixed form *blō-s‑;
      3. ferret2, flora, Flora, floral, floret, floriated, florid, florin, florist, -florous, flour, flourish, flower; cauliflower, deflower, effloresce, enfleurage, florigen, millefiori glass, millefleur, from Latin flōs (stem flōr‑), flower, from Italic suffixed form *flō-s‑;
      4. suffixed form *bhlō-to‑, possibly in the meaning "swell, gush, spurt" in Germanic *blōdam, blood.
        1. blood, from Old English blōd, blood;
        2. bleed, from Old English *blēdan, to bleed, from Germanic denominative *blōdjan;
        3. bless, from Old English bloedsian, blētsian, to consecrate, from Germanic *blōdisōn, to treat or hallow with blood.
    2. emblements, from Medieval Latin blādum, bladium, produce of the land, grain, from Germanic suffixed form *blē-da‑.
    3. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhlə-to‑. blade, from Old English blæd, leaf, blade, from Germanic *bladaz.
[Pokorny 4. bhel‑ 122.]

To swell. Extension of bhel-2 . Oldest form *bhelg̑h‑, becoming *bhelgh‑ in centum languages.
  1. O-grade form *bholgh‑. bellows, belly, from Old English bel(i)g, bælig, bag, bellows, from Germanic *balgiz.
  2. Zero-grade form *bhl̥gh‑. billow, from Old Norse bylgja, a wave, from Germanic *bulgjan.
  3. Zero-grade form *bhl̥gh‑. bolster, from Old English bolster, cushion, from Germanic *bulgstraz.
  4. O-grade form *bholgh‑.
    1. Fir Bolg, Imbolc, from Irish bolg, bolc, bag.
    2. budget, bulge, from Latin bulga, leather sack, from Celtic *bolg‑.
[Pokorny bhelg̑h‑ 125.]

To bind.
Derivatives include bind, bandanna, and bundle.
    1. bind; woodbine, from Old English bindan, to bind;
    2. bindlestiff, from Old High German binten, to bind. Both a and b from Germanic *bindan.
  1. bandanna, from Sanskrit bandhati, he ties.
  2. O-grade form *bhondh‑.
    1. bend2; ribbon, from Old English bend, band, and Old French bende, band;
    2. bend1, from Old English bendan, to bend;
    3. band1, bond, from Old Norse band, band, fetter;
    4. gum band, from Old High German band, band;
    5. band1, from Old French bande, bond, tie, link. a-e all from Germanic *band‑.
  3. Suffixed form *bhondh-o‑. bund1; cummerbund, from Old Iranian banda‑, bond, fetter.
  4. Zero-grade form *bhn̥dh‑.
    1. bund2, from Middle High German bunt, league;
    2. bundle, from Middle Dutch bondel, sheaf of papers, bundle. Both a and b from Germanic *bund‑.
[Pokorny bhendh‑ 127.]

To carry; also to bear children.
Derivatives include birth, fertile, suffer, furtive, and metaphor.
      1. bear1, from Old English beran, to carry;
      2. forbear1, from Old English forberan, to bear, endure (for‑, for‑; see per1). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *beran.
    1. bier, from Old English bēr, bǣr, bier, and Old French biere bier, both from Germanic *bērō;
    2. bore3, from Old Norse bāra, wave, billow, from Germanic *bēr‑.
    1. bairn, from Old English bearn, child, from Germanic *barnam;
    2. barrow1, from Old English bearwe, basket, wheelbarrow, from Germanic *barwōn‑.
    1. burly, from Old English *borlic, excellent, exalted (< "borne up"), from Germanic *bur‑;
    2. burden, from Old English byrthen, burden, from Germanic *burthinja‑;
    3. birth, from a source akin to Old Norse burdhr, birth, from Germanic *burthiz;
    4. birr1, from Old Norse byrr, favorable wind, perhaps from Germanic *burja‑.
  1. Compound root *bhrenk‑, to bring (< *bher‑ + *enk‑, to reach; see nek-2). bring, from Old English bringan, to bring, from Germanic *brengan.
  2. -fer, fertile; afferent, circumference, confer, defer1, defer2, differ, efferent, infer, offer, prefer, proffer, refer, suffer, transfer, vociferate, from Latin ferre, to carry.
  3. Prefixed and suffixed zero-grade form *pro-bhr-o‑, "something brought before one" (*pro‑, before; see per1). opprobrium, from Latin probrum, a reproach.
  4. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *bhr̥-tu‑ in Latin words having to do with "chance" (? < "a bringing, that which is brought").
    1. fortuitous, from Latin fortuītus, happening by chance;
    2. Fortuna, fortune, from Latin fortūna, chance, good luck, fortune, and Fortūna, goddess of good fortune.
  5. Probably lengthened o-grade form *bhōr‑. ferret1, furtive, furuncle; furunculosis, from Latin fūr, thief.
  6. feretory, -phore, -phoresis, -phorous; amphora, anaphora, diaphoresis, euphoria, metaphor, periphery, pheromone, telpher, tocopherol, from Greek pherein, to carry, with o-grade noun phoros, a carrying.
  7. paraphernalia, from Greek phernē, dowry ("something brought by a bride").
  8. sambal, from Sanskrit bharati, he carries, brings.
[Pokorny 1. bher‑ 128.]

Bright, brown.
  1. Suffixed variant form *bhrū-no‑.
    1. brown, from Old English brūn, brown;
    2. bruin, from Middle Dutch bruun;
    3. brunet, burnet, burnish, from Old French brun, shining, brown. a-c all from Germanic *brūnaz.
  2. Reduplicated form *bhibhru‑, *bhebhru‑, "the brown animal," beaver. beaver1, from Old English be(o)for, beaver, from Germanic *bebruz.
  3. bear2, from Old English bera, bear, from Germanic *berō, "the brown animal," bear.
  4. berserker, perhaps from Old Norse björn, bear, from Germanic *bernuz.
[Pokorny 5. bher‑ 136.]

To shine; bright, white. Oldest form *bherhxgibreve;‑, becoming *bherhxg‑ in centum languages.
  1. bright, from Old English beorht, bright, from Germanic *berhtaz, bright.
  2. "The white tree," the birch (also the ash).
    1. birch, birk, from Old English birc(e), birch, from Germanic *birkjōn‑;
    2. probably suffixed zero-grade form *bhrag-s‑. fraxinella, from Latin fraxinus, ash tree.
[Pokorny bherəg̑‑ 139.]

To hide, protect. Oldest form *bherg̑h‑, becoming *bhergh‑ in centum languages.
    1. Germanic compound *h(w)als-berg‑ (see kwel-1);
    2. Germanic compound *skēr-berg‑ (see sker-1). Both a and b from Germanic *bergan, to protect.
  1. Zero-grade form *bhr̥gh‑.
    1. bury, from Old English byrgan, to bury, from Germanic *burgjan;
    2. burial, from Old English byrgels, burial, from Germanic derivative *burgisli‑.
    1. borrow, from Old English borgian, to borrow, from Germanic *borgēn, to pledge, lend, borrow;
    2. bargain, from Old French bargaignier, to haggle, from Germanic derivative *borganjan.
[Pokorny bherg̑h‑ 145.]

High; with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts. Oldest form *bherg̑h‑, becoming *bhergh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include iceberg, bourgeois, burglar, force, and fortify.
    1. barrow2, from Old English beorg, hill;
    2. iceberg, from Middle Dutch bergh, mountain;
    3. inselberg, from Old High German berg, mountain;
    4. Germanic compound *harja-bergaz (see koro-). a-d all from Germanic *bergaz, hill, mountain.
  1. belfry, from Old French berfroi, tower, from Germanic compound *berg-frij‑, "high place of safety," tower (*frij‑, peace, safety; see prī-).
  2. Zero-grade form *bhr̥gh‑.
    1. borough, burg, from Old English burg, burh, byrig, (fortified) town;
    2. burgomaster, from Middle Dutch burch, town;
    3. bourg, bourgeois, burgess, burglar; faubourg, from Late Latin burgus, fortified place, and Old French burg, borough;
    4. burgher, from Old High German burgāri, townsman, from Germanic compound *burg-warōn‑, "city protector" (*warōn‑, protector; see wer-4). a-d all from Germanic *burgs, hill-fort.
  3. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *bhr̥gh-to‑. force, fort, fortalice, forte1, forte2, fortis, fortissimo, fortitude, fortress; comfort, deforce, effort, enforce, fortify, panforte, pianoforte, reinforce, from Latin fortis, strong (but this is also possibly from dher-).
[Pokorny bhereg̑h‑ 140.]

To breathe. Probably imitative. Zero-grade form *bhs‑.
psyche1, psychic, psycho-; metempsychosis, from Greek psūkhē, spirit, soul, from psūkhein (< *bhs-ū-kh‑), to breathe.
[Pokorny 2. bhes‑ 146.]

To be aware, to make aware.
Derivatives include bid, forbid, and Buddha.2
    1. bid, from Old English bēodan, to proclaim;
    2. forbid, from Old English forbēodan, to forbid;
    3. verboten, from Old High German farbiotan, to forbid. a-c all from Germanic *(for)beudan (*for, before; see per1).
  1. bode1, from Old English bodian, to announce, from boda, messenger, from Germanic *budōn‑.
  2. beadle, from Old English bydel, herald, messenger, and Old High German butil, herald, both from Germanic *budilaz, herald.
  3. ombudsman, from Old Norse bodh, command, from Germanic *budam.
  4. Buddha2; bodhisattva, bodhi tree, bo tree, from Sanskrit bodhati, he awakes, is enlightened, becomes aware, and bodhiḥ, perfect knowledge.
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form bhudh-to‑. Buddha2, from Sanskrit buddhaḥ, awakened, enlightened.
[Pokorny bheudh‑ 150.]

Also bheu-.
To be, exist, grow. Oldest form *bheuhx.
Derivatives include be, husband, imp, physics, future, neighbor, and beam.
  1. Extended forms *bhwiy(o)‑, *bhwī‑.
    1. be; forebear, from Old English bēon, to be, from Germanic *biju, I am, will be.
    2. fiat, from Latin fierī, to become.
    3. Possibly suffixed form *bhwī-lyo‑, seen by some as the source of Latin fīlius, son, but this is more likely from dhē(i)-.
  2. Lengthened o-grade form *bhōw‑.
    1. bondage, bound4; bustle1, husband, from Old Norse būa, to live, prepare, and būask, to make oneself ready (-sk, reflexive suffix; see s(w)e-);
    2. Bauhaus, from Old High German būan, to dwell;
    3. booth, from Middle English bothe, market stall, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Danish bōth, dwelling, stall. a-c from Germanic *bōwan.
  3. Zero-grade form *bhu‑.
      1. build, from Old English byldan, to build, from bold, dwelling, house, from Germanic *buthla‑;
      2. boodle, from Middle Dutch bōdel, riches, property, from alternate Germanic form *bōthla.
    1. physic, physics, physio-, physique, -phyte, phyto-, phyton; apophysis, diaphysis, diphyodont, epiphysis, euphuism, hypophysis, imp, Monophysite, neophyte, periphyton, symphysis, tracheophyte, from Greek phuein, to bring forth, make grow, phutos, phuton, a plant, and phusis, growth, nature.
    2. Suffixed form *bhu-tā‑.
      1. eisteddfod, from Welsh bod, to be;
      2. bothy, from Old Irish both, a hut.
    3. Suffixed form *bhu-tu‑. future, from Latin futūrus, "that is to be," future.
  4. Zero-grade form *bhū‑ (< *bhuə‑).
      1. bower1, from Old English būr, "dwelling space," bower, room;
      2. neighbor, from Old English gebūr, dweller (ge‑, collective prefix; see kom);
      3. Boer, boor, from Middle Dutch gheboer, ghebuer, peasant. a-c all from Germanic *būram, dweller, especially farmer.
    1. byre, from Old English bȳre, stall, hut, from Germanic *būrjam, dwelling.
    2. bylaw, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse bȳr, settlement, from Germanic *būwi‑.
    3. Suffixed form *bhū-lo‑. phyle, phyletic, phylum; phylogeny, from Greek phūlon, tribe, class, race, and phūlē, tribe, clan.
  5. Zero-grade reduced suffixal form *-bhw‑, in Latin compounds.
    1. Latin dubius, doubtful, and dubitāre, to doubt, from *du-bhw-io‑ (see dwo-).
    2. Latin probus, upright, from *pro-bhw-o‑, "growing well or straightforward" (see per1).
    3. Latin superbus, superior, proud, from *super-bhw-o‑, "being above" (see uper).
  6. Possibly Germanic *baumaz (and *bagmaz), tree (? < "growing thing").
    1. beam, from Old English bēam, tree, beam;
    2. boom2, from Middle Dutch boom, tree;
    3. bumpkin1, bumpkin2, from Flemish boom, tree.
[Pokorny bheu‑ 146.]

To bend; with derivatives referring to bent, pliable, or curved objects.
Derivatives include bagel, buxom, and bog.
  1. Variant form *bheugh‑ in Germanic *beug‑.
      1. bee2, from Old English bēag, a ring;
      2. bagel, from Old High German boug, a ring. Both a and b from Germanic *baugaz.
      1. bow3; akimbo, from Old English boga, a bow, arch;
      2. Germanic compound *elino-bugōn‑ (see el-);
      3. bow1, from a source akin to Middle Low German boog, bow of a boat;
      4. bowline, bowsprit, from Middle Low German bōch, bow of a boat. a-d all from Germanic *bugōn‑.
    1. bow2, buxom, from Old English būgan, to bend, from Germanic būgan.
    2. bail3, from Middle English beil, a handle, perhaps from Old English *bēgel or from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Swedish *böghil, both from Germanic *baugil‑.
    3. bight, from Old English byht, a bend, angle, from Germanic *buhtiz.
  2. bog, from Scottish and Irish Gaelic bog, soft, from Celtic *buggo‑, "flexible.".
[Pokorny 3. bheug‑ 152.]

To blow. Contracted from *bhleh1, or possibly lengthened grade *bhlēh2 from alternative root *bhleh2. Possibly identical to bhel-3 II*bhlē‑ above.
Derivatives include blaze3, flatus, and flavor.
  1. blow1, from Old English blāwan, to blow, from Germanic suffixed form *blē-w‑.
    1. bladder, from Old English blǣdre, blister, bladder;
    2. blather, from Old Norse bladhra (noun), bladder, and bladhra (verb), to prattle. Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *blēdram, "something blown up.".
    1. blast, from Old English blǣst, a blowing, blast;
    2. isinglass, from Middle Dutch blas(e), a bladder;
    3. blasé, blaze3, from Middle Dutch blāsen, to blow up, swell. a-c all from Germanic extended form *blēs‑.
  2. Zero-grade form *bhl̥ə‑ (> *bhlā‑) flabellum, flageolet, flatulent, flatus, flavor; afflatus, conflate, deflate, inflate, insufflate, soufflé, from Latin flāre, to blow.
[In Pokorny 3. bhel‑ 120.]

To swell, well up, overflow. Extension of bhel-2.
  1. Possibly Germanic *blaut‑. bloat, from Old Norse blautr, soft, wet.
  2. Extended form *bhleugw. fluctuate, fluent, fluid, flume, fluor, fluoro-, flush2, fluvial, flux; affluent, confluent, effluent, effluvium, efflux, fluoride, fluviomarine, influence, influenza, influx, mellifluous, reflux, solifluction, superfluous, from Latin fluere, to flow, and -fluus, flowing.
  3. Zero-grade form *bhlu‑. phlyctena, from Greek phlūein, phlūzein, to boil over.
  4. Possibly Greek phloos, phloios, tree bark (< "swelling with growth") phloem.
[Pokorny bhleu‑ 158.]

  1. bare1, from Old English bær, bare;
  2. ballast, from Old Swedish and Old Danish bar, bare;
  3. berserker, perhaps from Old Norse berr, bare. a-c all from Germanic *bazaz.
[Pokorny bhoso-s 163.]

Brother, male agnate.
    1. brother, from Old English brōthor, brother;
    2. bully1, from Middle Dutch broeder, brother. Both a and b from Germanic *brōthar‑.
  1. Fra, fraternal, fraternity, fraternize, friar; confrere, fratricide, from Latin frāter, brother.
  2. phratry, from Greek phrātēr, fellow member of a clan.
  3. pal, from Sanskrit bhrātā, bhrātar‑, brother.
[Pokorny bhrāter‑ 163.]

To break.
Derivatives include breach, fraction, frail1, infringe, and suffrage.
    1. break, from Old English brecan, to break;
    2. breach, from Old English brēc, a breaking;
    3. brash2, breccia, from Italian breccia, breccia, rubble, breach in a wall, from Old High German *brehha, from brehhan, to break;
    4. bray2, from Old French breier, to break;
    5. brioche, from Old French brier, dialectal variant of broyer, to knead. a-e all from Germanic *brekan.
    1. bracken, brake4, from Middle English brake(n), bracken, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse *brakni, undergrowth;
    2. brake5, from Middle Low German brake, thicket. Both a and b from Germanic *brak‑, bushes (< "that which impedes motion").
  1. brake2, from Middle Low German brake, flax brake, from Germanic *brāk‑, crushing instruments.
  2. Nasalized zero-grade form *bhr̥-n-g‑. fractal, fracted, fraction, fractious, fracture, fragile, fragment, frail1, frangible; anfractuous, chamfer, defray, diffraction, infract, infrangible, infringe, irrefrangible, ossifrage, refract, refrain2, refringent, sassafras, saxifrage, from Latin frangere, to break.
    1. suffragan, suffrage, from Latin suffrāgium, the right to vote, from suffrāgārī, to vote for (? < "to use a broken piece of tile as a ballot");
    2. irrefragable, from Latin refrāgārī, to vote against.
[Pokorny 1. bhreg̑‑ 165 (but not on good evidence).]

Also bhreuə‑, bhreəu-.
To boil, bubble, effervesce, burn; with derivatives referring to cooking and brewing. Oldest form *bhreuh1.
Derivatives include brew, bread, broth, brood, breed, ferment, and fervent.
    1. brew, from Old English brēowan, to brew, from Germanic *breuwan, to brew.
    2. bread, from Old English brēad, piece of food, bread, from Germanic *braudam, (cooked) food, (leavened) bread.
      1. broth, from Old English broth, broth;
      2. broil2; embroil, imbroglio, from Vulgar Latin *brodum, broth. Both a and b from Germanic *brudam, broth.
  1. Variant form *bhrē‑ (from *bhreə‑).
      1. brood, from Old English brōd, offspring, brood;
      2. breed, from Old English brēdan, to beget or cherish offspring, breed, from Germanic denominative *brōdjan, to rear young. Both a and b from Germanic derivative *brōd-ō, "a warming," hatching, rearing of young.
      1. bratwurst, sauerbraten, from Old High German brāt, brāto, roast meat;
      2. brawn, from Old French braon, meat. Both a and b from Germanic derivative *brēd-ōn‑, roast flesh. Both 1 and 2 from Germanic *brēdan, to warm.
  2. Variant form *bhres‑.
    1. braise, braze2, brazier2, breeze2, bresaola, from Old French brese, burning coal, ember;
    2. braciola, from Italian dialectal braṣa, burning coal
    3. brazilwood, from Old Spanish brasa, burning coals. a-c all from Germanic *bres‑.
  3. Reduced form *bher‑, especially in derivatives referring to fermentation.
      1. Suffixed form *bher-men‑, yeast. barm, barmy, from Old English beorma, yeast, from Germanic *bermōn‑;
      2. further suffixed form *bhermen-to‑. ferment, from Latin fermentum, yeast.
    1. Extended form *bherw‑. fervent, fervid, fervor; defervescence, effervesce, from Latin fervēre, to be boiling or fermenting.
  4. As a very archaic word for a spring.
    1. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhru-n(e)n‑. bourn1, burn2, from Old English burn, burna, spring, stream, from Germanic *brunnōn‑.
    2. Suffixed form *bhrēw-r̥. phreatic, from Greek phrear, spring.
[Pokorny bh(e)reu‑ 143, 2.bher‑ 132.]

Eyebrow. Oldest form *bhruhx, becoming *bhrū.
  1. brow, from Old English brū‑, eyebrow, eyelid, eyelash, from Germanic *brūs.
  2. Possibly in the sense of a beam of wood, and perhaps a log bridge. bridge1, from Old English brycg(e), bridge, from Germanic *brugjō (with cognates in Celtic and Slavic).
[Pokorny 1. bhrū‑ 172, 2.bhrū‑ 173.]

To divide. Oldest form *deh2, colored to *dah2, becoming *dā‑.
Derivatives include democracy, epidemic, demon, and time.
  1. Suffixed form *dā-mo‑, perhaps "division of society." deme, demos, demotic; demagogue, demiurge, democracy, demography, endemic, epidemic, pandemic, from Greek dēmos, people, land.
  2. Variant *dai‑, from extended form *daəi‑, with zero-grade *dī‑ (< *diə‑, metathesized from *dəi‑).
    1. Root form *dai‑. geodesy, from Greek daiesthai, to divide.
    2. Suffixed form *dai-mon‑, divider, provider. daimon, demon, from Greek daimōn, divinity.
    3. Suffixed variant form *dī-ti‑.
      1. tide1; eventide, from Old English tīd, time, season;
      2. tide2, from Old English denominative tīdan, to happen (< "to occur in time");
      3. tidings, from Old Norse tīdhr, occurring;
      4. Yahrzeit, zeitgeber, Zeitgeist, from Old High German zīt, time. a-d all from Germanic *tīdiz, division of time.
    4. Suffixed variant form *dī-mon‑. time, from Old English tīma, time, period, from Germanic *tīmōn‑.
[Pokorny dā : də‑ 175.]

To divide. Northern Indo-European root extended from *da(h2)i‑ (see dā-).
  1. deal1, from Old English dǣlan, to share, from Germanic *dailjan.
  2. dole1, from Old English dāl, portion, lot, from Germanic *dailaz.
  3. ordeal, from Old English ordāl, trial by ordeal, from Germanic prefixed form *uz-dailjam, "a portioning out," judgment (*uz‑, out; see ud-).
  4. firkin, from Middle Dutch deel, part, from Germanic *dailiz.
[In Pokorny dā : də‑ 175.]

Husband's brother.
levirate, from Latin lēvir, husband's brother.
[Pokorny dāiu̯ēr 179.]

Tear. Oldest form *dak̑ru‑, becoming *dakru‑ in centum languages.
    1. tear2, from Old English tēar, tehher, tear;
    2. train oil, from Middle Dutch trane, tear, drop. Both a and b from Germanic *tahr‑, *tagr‑.
  1. Suffixed form *dakru-mā‑. lachrymal, from Latin lacrima (Archaic Latin dacruma), tear.
[Pokorny dak̑ru‑ 179.]

Demonstrative stem, base of prepositions and adverbs.
  1. Form *dō (possibly instrumental).
      1. to, too, from Old English , to;
      2. tsimmes, from Old High German zuo, ze, to;
      3. tattoo1, from Middle Dutch toe, to, shut. (i)-(iii) all from Germanic *tō.
    1. Italic *dō in compound *kwām-dō (see kwo-).
  2. Form *dē (possibly instrumental), perhaps source of forms meaning "from, out of."
    1. de-, from Latin , dē‑, from;
    2. deteriorate, from Latin dēterior, worse, from suffixed form *dē-tero‑;
    3. compound *dē-bel-i‑ (see bel-);
    4. Celtic *dī, from, in compound *eks-dī-sedo‑ (see sed-).
[Pokorny de‑ 181.]

To show, pronounce solemnly; also in derivatives referring to the directing of words or objects. Oldest form *deik̑‑, becoming *deik‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include teach, toe, addict, preach, judge, revenge, and disk.
  1. Variant *deig‑.
    1. O-grade form *doig‑.
      1. teach, from Old English tǣcan, to show, instruct, from Germanic *taikjan, to show;
        1. token, from Old English tācen, tācn, sign, mark;
        2. betoken, from Old English tācnian, to signify;
        3. tetchy, from Gothic taikns, sign;
        4. tachisme, from Old French tache, teche, mark, stain. (i)-(iv) all from Germanic *taiknam.
    2. Zero-grade form *dig‑. digit, from Latin digitus, finger (< "pointer," "indicator").
  2. Basic form *deik‑.
    1. Possibly o-grade form *doik‑. toe, from Old English , tahe, toe, from Germanic *taihwō.
    2. Basic form *deik‑. dictate, diction, dictum, ditto, ditty; addict, benediction, condition, contradict, edict, fatidic, herb bennet, indict, indiction, indite, interdict, juridical, jurisdiction, maledict, malison, predict, valediction, verdict, veridical, voir dire, from Latin dīcere, to say, tell.
    3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dik-ā‑. abdicate, dedicate, preach, predicament, predicate, from Latin dicāre, to proclaim.
    4. Agential suffix *-dik‑.
      1. index, indicate, from Latin index, indicator, forefinger (in‑, toward; see en);
      2. judge, judicial; prejudice, from Latin iūdex (< *yewes-dik‑), judge, "one who shows or pronounces the law" (iūs, law; see yewes-);
      3. vendetta, vindicate; avenge, revenge, from Latin vindex (first element obscure), surety, claimant, avenger.
    5. deictic, deixis; apodictic, paradigm, policy2, from Greek deiknunai, to show, and noun deigma (*deik-mn̥), sample, pattern.
    6. Zero-grade form *dik‑. disk; dictyosome, from suffixed form *dik-skos, from Greek dikein, to throw (< "to direct an object").
    7. Form *dikā‑. dicast; syndic, theodicy, from Greek dikē, justice, right, court case.
[Pokorny deik̑‑ 188.]

To take, accept. Oldest form *dek̑‑, becoming *dek‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include decent, paradox, and disdain.
  1. Suffixed (stative) form *dek-ē‑. decent, from Latin decēre, to be fitting (< "to be acceptable").
  2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *dok-eye‑.
    1. docent, docile, doctor, doctrine, document, from Latin docēre, to teach (< "to cause to accept");
    2. dogma, dogmatic; chionodoxa, Docetism, doxology, heterodox, orthodox, paradox, from Greek dokein, to appear, seem, think (< "to cause to accept or be accepted").
  3. Suffixed form *dek-es‑.
    1. décor, decorate, from Latin decus, grace, ornament;
    2. decorous, from Latin decor, seemliness, elegance, beauty.
  4. Suffixed form *dek-no‑. dainty, deign, dignity; condign, dignify, disdain, indign, indignant, indignation, from Latin dignus, worthy, deserving, fitting.
  5. Reduplicated form *di-dk-ske‑. disciple, discipline, from Latin discere, to learn.
  6. dowel, pandect, synecdoche, from Greek dekhesthai, to accept.
  7. Suffixed o-grade form *dok-o‑. diplodocus, from Greek dokos, beam, support.
[Pokorny 1. dek̑‑ 189.]

Ten. Oldest form *dek̑m̥, becoming *dekm̥ in centum languages.
Derivatives include ten, December, decimate, dean, hundred, century, and hecatomb.
  1. Basic form *dekm̥.
      1. ten, from Old English tīen, ten;
      2. Old Norse tjan, ten, in compound āttjān (see oktō(u)). Both a and b from Germanic *tehun.
    1. eighteen, fifteen, fourteen, nineteen, seventeen, sixteen, thirteen, from Old English suffix -tēne, -tīne, -tȳne, ten, -teen, from Germanic *tehan.
    2. deci-, decimal, decimate, decuple, decurion, dicker, dime; December, decemvir, decennary, decennium, decussate, dozen, duodecimal, octodecimo, sextodecimo, from Latin decem, ten.
    3. denarius, denary, denier2, dinar, from irregular Latin distributive dēnī, by tens, ten each (formed by analogy with nōnī, nine each).
    4. dean, deca-, decade, doyen; decagon, Decalogue, dodecagon, from Greek deka, ten.
  2. Germanic *tigu‑, ten, decad (of uncertain formation, as though < *deku‑), in compound *twēgentig (see dwo-).
  3. Ordinal number *dekm̥to‑. tenth, tithe, from Old English teogotha, tēotha, tenth, from Germanic *teguntha‑.
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *-dkm̥-tā̆, reduced to *-km̥tā̆, and lengthened o-grade form *-dkōm-tā̆, reduced to *-kontā̆.
    1. nonagenarian, octogenarian, Septuagint, sexagenary, from Latin -gintā, ten times.
    2. Pentecost, from Greek *-konta, ten times.
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form *dkm̥-tom, hundred, reduced to *km̥tom.
    1. hundred, from Old English hundred, from dialectal North and West Germanic *hund(a)-rada‑ (-rada‑, from Germanic *radam, number; see ar-), from Germanic *hundam, hundred.
    2. Germanic compound *thūs-hundi, "swollen hundred," thousand (see teuə-).
    3. cent, cental, centavo, centenarian, centenary, centesimal, centi-, centime, centner, centum, century; centennial, cinquecento, percent, quattrocento, seicento, sen2, seniti, sexcentenary, trecento, from Latin centum, hundred.
    4. hecatomb, hecto-, from Greek hekaton, a hundred (? dissimilated from *hem-katon, one hundred; *hem‑, one; see sem-1).
    5. satem, from Avestan satəm, hundred.
[Pokorny dek̑m̥ 191.]
See also compound root wīkm̥tī-.

Right (opposite left); hence, south (from the viewpoint of one facing east). Oldest form *dek̑s‑, becoming *deks‑ in centum languages. Suffixed form *deks(i)-tero‑.
destrier, dexter, dexterity, dextro-; ambidextrous, from Latin dexter, right, on the right side.
[In Pokorny 1. dek̑‑ 189.]
Compare ner-1.

Derivatives include linger, Lent, longitude, and lunge.
  1. Probably extended and suffixed zero-grade form *dlon-gho‑.
      1. long1; along, longshore, from Old English lang, long, long;
      2. langlauf, from Old High German lang, long;
      3. belong, from Old English gelang, along;
      4. long2, from Old English denominative langian, to grow longer, yearn for, from Germanic *langōn;
      5. linger, from Old English lengan, to prolong (possibly influenced by Old Norse lengja, to lengthen), from Germanic *langjan, to make long;
      6. Lombard, from Latin compound Longobardus, Langobardus (with Germanic ethnic name *Bardi). a-f all from Germanic *langaz, long.
      1. length, from Old English lengthu, length;
      2. Lent, from Old English lengten, lencten, spring, Lent, from West Germanic *langitinaz, lengthening of day;
      3. ling1, from Middle English lenge, ling, ling, from a Low German source akin to Dutch lenghe, linghe, "long one." a-c all from Germanic abstract noun *langithō.
    1. longeron, longitude, lounge; eloign, elongate, longevity, lunge, oblong, prolong, purloin, from Latin longus, long.
  2. Possibly suffixed variant form *dl̥ə-gho‑. dolichocephalic, dolichocranial, from Greek dolikhos, long.
[Pokorny 5. del‑ 196.]

To recount, count. O-grade form *dol‑.
  1. tell1, from Old English tellan, to count, recount, from Germanic *taljan.
  2. tall, from Old English getæl, quick, ready, from West Germanic *(ge‑)tala‑.
    1. tale, from Old English talu, story;
    2. Taal2, from Middle Dutch tāle, speech, language. Both a and b from Germanic *talō.
  3. talk, from Middle English talken, to talk, from a source probably akin to Old English denominative talian, to tell, relate.
  4. Perhaps Greek dolos, ruse, snare dolerite, sedulous.
[Pokorny 1. del‑ 193.]

House, household.
Derivatives include dome, domestic, and timber.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *dom-o‑, *dom-u‑, house.
    1. dome, domestic, domicile; major-domo, from Latin domus, house;
    2. suffixed form *dom-o-no‑. dame, Dan2, danger, Dom, domain, domaine, dominate, dominical, dominie, dominion, domino1, domino2, don1, Donna, dungeon; belladonna, duende, Madam, Madame, Mademoiselle, Madonna, predominate, from Latin dominus, master of a household (feminine domina).
  2. Possibly suffixed lengthened-grade form *dōm-n̥. dome, from Greek dōma, house.
  3. Compound *dems-pot‑, "house-master" (*-pot‑, powerful; see poti-). despot, from Greek despotēs.
  4. Root form *dem(ə2)‑, to build (possibly a separate root).
    1. timber, from Old English timber, building material, lumber, from Germanic *timram;
    2. toft, from Old Norse topt, homestead, from Germanic *tumftō.
[Pokorny dem‑ 198.]

To constrain, force, especially to break in (horses). Oldest form *demh2.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *dom(ə)-o‑. tame, from Old English tam, domesticated, from Germanic *tamaz.
  2. O-grade form *domə‑. daunt; indomitable, from Latin domāre, to tame, subdue.
  3. Zero-grade form *dm̥ə‑. adamant, diamond, from Greek damān, to tame (> adamās, unconquerable, from *n̥-dm̥ə-nt‑).
[Pokorny (demə‑) 199.]

Tooth. Originally *h1d-ent‑, "biting," present participle of ed- in the earlier meaning "to bite."
  1. O-grade form *dont‑. tooth, from Old English tōth, tooth, from Germanic *tanthuz.
  2. Zero-grade form *dn̥t‑. tusk, from Old English tūsc, tūx, canine tooth, from Germanic *tunth-sk‑.
  3. Full-grade form *dent‑. dental, dentate, denti-, denticle, dentist; dandelion, edentate, edentulous, indent1, indenture, trident, from Latin dēns (stem dent‑), tooth.
  4. O-grade variant form *ədont‑, ultimately becoming odont‑ in Greek -odon, -odont, odonto-; dimetrodon, diprotodon, mastodon, from Greek odōn, odous, tooth.
[In Pokorny ed‑ 287.]

To split, peel, flay; with derivatives referring to skin and leather.
  1. tear1, from Old English teran, to tear, from Germanic *teran.
  2. tart1, from Old English teart, sharp, severe, from Germanic *ter-t‑.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dr̥-tom, "something separated or discarded." turd, from Old English tord, turd, from Germanic *turdam, turd.
  4. Reduplicated form *de-dr-u‑. tetter, from Old English tet(e)r, eruption, skin disease.
  5. Suffixed form *der-mn̥. -derm, derma1, -derma, dermato-; epidermis, from Greek derma, skin.
  6. dahl, Dalit, dhurrie, from Sanskrit darati, he splits.
[Pokorny 4. der‑ 206.]

To see. Oldest form *derk̑‑, becoming *derk‑ in centum languages.
Suffixed zero-grade form *dr̥k-on(t)‑. dragon, dragoon, drake2, tarragon; rankle, from Greek drakō, serpent, dragon (< "monster with the evil eye").
[Pokorny derk̑‑ 213.]

Also dreu-.
To be firm, solid, steadfast; hence specialized senses "wood," "tree," and derivatives referring to objects made of wood.
Derivatives include tree, trust, betroth, endure, and druid.
  1. Suffixed variant form *drew-o‑.
    1. tree, from Old English trēow, tree, from Germanic *trewam;
    2. truce, from Old English trēow, pledge, from Germanic *treuwō.
  2. Variant form dreu‑.
    1. true, from Old English trēowe, firm, true;
    2. trow, from Old English trēowian, trūwian, to trust;
    3. trig1, from Old Norse tryggr, firm, true;
    4. troth, truth; betroth, from Old English trēowth, faith, loyalty, truth, from Germanic abstract noun *treuwithō;
    5. trust, from Old Norse traust, confidence, firmness, from Germanic abstract noun *traustam;
    6. tryst, from Old French triste, waiting place (< "place where one waits trustingly"), probably from a source akin to Old Norse denominative treysta, to trust, make firm. a-f all from Germanic *treuwaz.
  3. Variant form *drou‑. tray, from Old English trēg, trīg, wooden board, from Germanic *traujam.
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dru-ko‑.
    1. trough, from Old English trog, wooden vessel, tray;
    2. trug, from Old Norse trog, trough. Both a and b from Germanic *trugaz.
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form *dru-mo‑.
    1. trim, from Old English trum, firm, strong;
    2. shelter, from Old English truma, troop. Both a and b from Germanic *trum‑.
  6. Variant form *derw‑. tar1, from Old English te(o)ru, resin, pitch (obtained from the pine tree), from Germanic *terw‑.
  7. Suffixed variant form *drū-ro‑. dour, duramen, duress, durum; durain, dura mater, endure, indurate, obdurate, from Latin dūrus, hard (many of whose English derivatives represent a semantic cross with Latin dūrāre, to last long; see deuə-).
  8. Lengthened zero-grade form *drū‑. drupe, dryad; Dryopithecus, germander, hamadryad, from Greek drūs, oak.
  9. Reduplicated form *der-drew‑, dissimilated with suffix in *der-drew-on. dendro-, dendron; philodendron, rhododendron, from Greek dendron, tree.
  10. druid, from Latin druides, druids, probably from Celtic compound *dru-wid‑, "strong seer" (*wid‑, seeing; see weid-), the Celtic priestly caste.
  11. O-grade form *doru‑. deodar, from Sanskrit dāru, wood, timber.
[Pokorny deru‑ 214.]

To lack, be wanting.
  1. Possibly suffixed form *deu-s‑.
    1. tire1, from Old English tēorian, tyrian, to fail, tire (< "to fall behind"), from Germanic *teuzōn;
    2. deontology, from Greek dein, to lack, want.
  2. Suffixed form *deu-tero‑. deutero-; deuteragonist, deuterium, Deuteronomy, from Greek deuteros, "missing," next, second.
[Pokorny 3. deu‑ 219.] (For suffixed zero-grade form *du-s‑, combining form of *dew-es‑, a lack, see dus-.) [In Pokorny 3.deu‑ 219.]

To do, perform, show favor, revere.
Derivatives include embellish, and dynamite.
  1. Suffixed form *dw-eno‑. bonbon, bonito, bonny, bonus, boon2, bounty; bonanza, bonhomie, debonair, from Latin bonus, good (< "useful, efficient, working").
  2. Adverbial form *dw-enē. benediction, benefaction, benefactor, benefic, beneficence, benefit, benevolent, benign, ben trovato, herb bennet, from Latin bene, well.
  3. Diminutive *dw-en-elo‑. beau, beauty, belle; beldam, belladonna, belvedere, embellish, from Latin bellus, handsome, pretty, fine.
  4. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *dw-eye‑. beatitude; beatific, beatify, from Latin beāre, to make blessed.
  5. Possible (but unlikely for formal and semantic reasons) suffixed zero-grade form *du-nə‑. dynamic, dynamite, dynast, dynasty; aerodyne, from Greek dunasthai, to be able.
[Pokorny 2. (deu‑) 218.]

Also dwaə-.
Long (in duration). Oldest form *deuh2 with variant (metathesized) *dweh2, the latter colored to *dwah2, becoming *dwā‑. Suffixed zero-grade form *dū-ro‑ (< *duə-ro‑, oldest form *duh2-ro‑).
durable, durance, duration, during; perdurable, thermoduric, from Latin dūrāre, to last.
[In Pokorny 3. deu‑ 219.]

To lead.
Derivatives include wanton, team, duke, subdue, and educate.
    1. tug; wanton, from Old English tēon, to pull, draw, lead;
    2. Zugunruhe, zugzwang, from Old High German ziohan, to pull. Both a and b from Germanic *teuhan.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *duk-ā‑. tow1, taut, from Old English togian, to draw, drag, from Germanic *tugōn.
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *douk-eyo‑. tie, from Old English *tīegan, tīgan, to bind.
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *douk-mo‑. team, from Old English tēam, descendant, family, race, brood, team, from Germanic *tau(h)maz.
  4. teem1, from Old English tēman, tīeman, to beget, from Germanic denominative *tau(h)mjan.
  5. Basic form *deuk‑. doge, douche, ducal, ducat, duce, duchess, duchy, duct, ductile, duke; abducens, abduct, adduce, aqueduct, circumduction, con3, condottiere, conduce, conduct, deduce, deduct, educe, endue, induce, introduce, produce, redoubt, reduce, seduction, subduction, subdue, traduce, transducer, from Latin dūcere, to lead.
  6. Suffixed zero-grade form *duk-ā‑. educate, from Latin ēducāre, to lead out, bring up (ē‑, < ex‑, out; see eghs).
[Pokorny deuk‑ 220.]

To set, put. Oldest form *dheh1, becoming *dhē‑.
Derivatives include deed, doom, fashion, defeat, feckless, sacrifice, satisfy, face, and synthesis.
  1. Basic form *dhē‑.
    1. Suffixed form *dhē-ti‑, "thing laid down or done, law, deed." deed; indeed, from Old English dǣd, doing, deed, from Germanic *dēdiz.
    2. Suffixed form *dhē-k‑. theca, tick3; amphithecium, apothecary, apothecium, bibliotheca, bodega, boutique, cleistothecium, endothecium, perithecium, from Greek thēkē, receptacle.
    3. Basic form *dhē‑. bard2, purdah, from Old Persian dā‑, to place.
    4. Suffixed form *dhē-to‑, set down, created, in Old Iranian compound *khvatō-dāta‑ (see s(w)e-).
  2. O-grade form *dhō‑.
    1. do1; fordo, from Old English dōn, to do, from Germanic *dōn.
    2. Suffixed o-grade form *dhō-men‑. abdomen, from Latin abdōmen, belly, abdomen, perhaps "part placed away, concealed part" (ab‑, away; see apo-).
    3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhō-mo‑.
      1. doom, from Old English dōm, judgment (< "thing set or put down");
      2. -dom, from Old English -dōm, abstract suffix indicating state, condition, or power;
      3. Old Norse -dōmr, condition, in compound hōrdōmr (see kā-);
      4. duma, dumka, from Russian Duma, Duma, from a Germanic source akin to Gothic dōms, judgment;
      5. deem, from Old English dēman, to judge, from Germanic denominative dōmjan. a-e all from Germanic dōmaz.
    4. Suffixed o-grade form *dhō-t‑ in compound *sakro-dhōt‑ (see sak-).
  3. Zero-grade form *dhə‑.
      1. Prefixed form *kom-dhə‑. abscond, incondite, recondite, sconce2, from Latin condere, to put together, establish, preserve (*kom, together; see kom);
      2. prefixed and suffixed form *kom-dh(ə)-yo‑. condiment, salmagundi, from Latin condīre, to season, flavor;
      3. compound *kred-dhə‑ (see kerd-);
      4. compound suffixed form *gwr̥ə-dh(ə)-o‑ (see gwerə-2).
    1. Suffixed zero-grade form dhə-k‑.
      1. -facient, fact, faction1, -faction, factitious, factitive, factor, factory, faena, fashion, feasible, feat1, feature, fetish, -fic, -fy, hacienda; affair, affect1, affect2, affection, amplify, artifact, artifice, beatific, benefaction, benefic, benefice, beneficence, benefit, chafe, comfit, confect, confetti, counterfeit, defeasance, defeat, defect, deficient, discomfit, edifice, edify, effect, efficacious, efficient, facsimile, factotum, feckless, forfeit, infect, justify, malefactor, malfeasance, manufacture, misfeasance, modify, mollify, nidify, notify, nullify, officinal, orifice, perfect, petrify, pluperfect, pontifex, prefect, proficient, profit, putrefy, qualify, rarefy, rectify, refect, refectory, rubefacient, sacrifice, satisfy, spinifex, suffice, sufficient, surfeit, tubifex, tumefacient, vivify, from Latin facere (< *fak-yo‑), to do, make, and Latin combining form -fex (< *-fak-s), "maker";
      2. façade, face, facet, facial, facies; deface, efface, surface, from Latin derivative faciēs, shape, face (< "form imposed on something");
      3. office, from Latin compound officium (< *opi-fici-om), service, duty, business, performance of work (*opi‑, work; see op-);
      4. further suffixed form *dhə-k-li‑. facile, facilitate, faculty, difficulty, from Latin facilis (< Archaic Latin facul), feasible, easy.
    2. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhə-s‑ (probably identical with zero-grade of dhēs-). nefarious, from Latin fās, divine law, right.
    3. multifarious, omnifarious, from Latin -fāriam, adverbial suffix, as in bifāriam, in two places, parts, double, from *dwi-dh(ə)‑, "making two" (*dwi‑, two; see dwo-).
    4. Reduplicated form *dhi-dhə‑. thesis, thetic; anathema, antithesis, diathesis, epenthesis, epithet, hypothecate, hypothesis, metathesis, parenthesis, prosthesis, prothesis, synthesis, from Greek tithenai, to put, with zero-grade noun thesis (*dhə-ti‑), a placing, and verbal adjective thetos (*dhə-to‑), placed.
    5. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhə-mn̥. thematic, theme; speleothem, from Greek thema, "thing placed," proposition.
    6. Reduplicated form *dhe-dhē‑. samhita, sandhi, from Sanskrit dadhāti, he places (past participle -hita‑, from suffixed zero-grade *dhə-to‑).
    7. Reduced form *dh‑ in compound *au-dh‑ (see au-).
[Pokorny 2. dhē‑ 235.]

To burn, warm.
  1. Suffixed o-grade (causative) form *dhogwh-eyo‑. foment, fomite, from Latin fovē, to warm, cherish, foment.
  2. Suffixed basic form dhegwh-rā‑. tephra, from Greek tephrā, ash.
[Pokorny dhegh‑ 240.]

To suck. Oldest form *dheh1(i)‑, becoming *dhē(i)‑.
Derivatives include female, fawn2, fetus, fennel, and affiliate.
  1. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-mnā‑. female, feminine, femme; effeminate, from Latin fēmina, woman (< "she who suckles").
  2. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-to‑. fawn2, fetal, fetus; effete, feticide, superfetate, from Latin fētus, pregnancy, childbearing, offspring, with adjective fētus, fēta, pregnant.
  3. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-kwondo‑. fecund, from Latin fēcundus, fruitful.
  4. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-no‑. fennel, finochio; fenugreek, sainfoin, from Latin fēnum, faenum, hay (< "produce").
  5. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *dhī-lyo‑ (< *dhiə-lyo‑) filial, filiation, fils1; affiliate, hidalgo, from Latin fīlius, son, and fīlia, daughter (but these are conceivably from the root bheuə-).
  6. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-lo‑. fellatio, from Latin fēlāre, fellāre, to suck.
  7. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-l-īk‑. felicitate, felicity; felicific, infelicity, from Latin fēlīx, fruitful, fertile, lucky, happy.
  8. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-lā‑. endothelium, epithelium, mesothelium, from Greek thēlē, nipple.
  9. Suffixed reduced form *dhē-l-u‑. theelin, from Greek thēlus, female.
[Pokorny dhē(i)‑ 241.]

To form, build. Oldest form *dheig̑h‑, becoming *dheigh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include dairy, lady, dough, and paradise.
  1. dairy, from Old English dǣge, bread kneader, from Germanic *daigjōn‑.
  2. lady, from Old English compound hlǣfdige, mistress of a household (< "bread kneader"; hlāf, bread, loaf), from Germanic *dīg‑.
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhoigh-o‑.
    1. dough, from Old English dāg, dough;
    2. teiglach, from Old High German teic, dough. Both a and b from Germanic *daigaz.
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhigh-ūrā‑. figure, figurine; configure, disfigure, prefigure, transfigure, from Latin figūra, form, shape (< "result of kneading").
  5. Nasalized zero-grade form *dhi-n-gh‑. fainéant, faint, feign, feint, fictile, fiction, figment; effigy, from Latin fingere, to shape.
  6. Probable nasalized zero-grade form *dhi-n-g(h)‑. thigmotaxis, thixotropy, from Greek thinganein, to touch.
  7. Suffixed o-grade form *dhoigh-o‑. paradise, from Avestan daēza‑, wall (originally made of clay or mud bricks).
[Pokorny dheig̑h‑ 244.]

To hold firmly, support.
Derivatives include infirmary, and throne.
  1. Suffixed form *dher-mo‑. farm, fermata, firm1, firm2, firmament; affirm, confirm, furl, infirm, infirmary, from Latin firmus, firm, strong.
  2. Perhaps extended form *dhergh‑, seen by some as the source of Latin fortis, strong, but this is more likely from bhergh-2.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhr-ono‑. throne, from Greek thronos, seat, throne (< "support").
  4. Suffixed form *dher-mn̥. dharma, from Sanskrit dharma, statute, law (< "that which is established firmly").
  5. Suffixed form *dher-eno‑. dharna, from Prakrit dharaṇa, a holding firm.
  6. Suffixed o-grade form *dhor-o‑. churidar, sirdar, tahsildar, zamindar, from Iranian dāra‑, holding, whence Persian -dār.
[Pokorny 2. dher‑ 252.]

To venture, be bold. O-grade form *dhors‑ and zero-grade form *dhr̥s‑.
dare, durst, from Old English dearr and durst, first and third person singular present and past indicative of durran, to venture, respectively from Germanic *dors‑ and *durs‑.
[Pokorny dhers‑ 259.]

Root of words in religious concepts. Oldest form *dheh1s‑, becoming *dhēs‑. Possibly an extension of dhē-.
Derivatives include feast, fanatic, atheism, and enthusiasm.
  1. Suffixed form *dhēs-yā‑. fair2, feria, from Latin fēriae (< Archaic Latin fēsiae), holidays.
  2. Suffixed form *dhēs-to‑. feast, fest, festal, festival, festive, festoon, fete, fiesta; Oktoberfest, from Latin fēstus, festive.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhəs-no‑. fanatic; profane, from Latin fānum, temple.
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhəs-o‑. theo-; apotheosis, atheism, enthusiasm, henotheism, pantheon, polytheism, tiffany, from Greek theos (< *thes-os), god.
[Pokorny dhēs‑ 259.]

To flow.
  1. dew, from Old English dēaw, dew;
  2. sundew, from Middle Dutch dau, dew;
  3. Germanic compound *melith-dauwaz (see melit-). a-c all from Germanic *dauwaz, dew.
[Pokorny 1. dheu‑ 259.]

To die. Also dheuə- (oldest form *dheuh2).
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *dhou-to‑. dead, from Old English dēad, dead, from Germanic *daudaz.
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *dhou-tu‑. death, from Old English dēath, death, from Germanic *dauthuz.
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhow-yo‑. die1, from Old Norse deyja, to die.
  4. Extended zero-grade form *dhuəi‑, metathesized to *dhwiə‑, contracted to *dhwī‑, whence suffixed form *dhwī-no‑. dwindle, from Old English dwīnan, to diminish, languish, from Germanic *dwīnan.
[Pokorny 2. dheu‑ 260. ]
Compare dheuə-.

Also dheubh-.
Deep, hollow.
  1. deep, depth, from Old English dēop, deep, from Germanic *deupaz.
  2. dip, from Old English dyppan, to immerse, dip, from Germanic expressive denominative *duppjan.
  3. Parallel root form *dheubh‑. dive1, from Old English dȳfan, to dip, and dūfan, to sink, dive, from Germanic verb *dūbjan, from *deub‑, *dub‑.
  4. Suffixed parallel root form *dhū̆bh-(o)n‑, with expressive variants. python, Python1, Typhon, from Greek Pūthōn and Tuphōn, mythical monsters, from *dhub(h)-n‑ and *b(h)ud(h)-n‑, which already in Indo-European were doublets by inversion, referring to "bottom," "foundation," "depths," and the mythological monsters that inhabited them.
[Pokorny dheu-b‑ 267.]

To close, finish, come full circle. Oldest form *dheuh2. Probably related to dheu-2 , "to die."
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhū-no‑ (< *dhuə-no‑), enclosed, fortified place; hill-fort.
      1. down1, down3, from Old English dūn, hill;
      2. dune, from Middle Dutch dūne, sandy hill. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *dūnaz, possibly from *dhū-no‑.
    1. town, from Old English tūn, enclosed place, homestead, village, from Germanic *tūnaz, fortified place, borrowed from Celtic *dū-no‑, hill, stronghold.
  2. Suffixed form *dhū-nes‑ (< *dhuə-nes‑) funeral, from Latin fūnus, funeral.
[In Pokorny 4. dheu‑ 261.]

To produce something of utility.
  1. doughty, from Old English dyhtig, dohtig, strong (< "productive"), from Germanic extended form *duht‑.
  2. Suffixed form *dheugh-os‑. Heptateuch, Hexateuch, Pentateuch, from Greek teukhos (< *theukhos), gear, anything produced, tool, container, scroll.
[Pokorny dheugh‑ 271.]

Earth. Oldest form *dhg̑hem‑, becoming *dhghem‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include bridegroom, chameleon, and homicide.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *(dh)ghm̥-on‑, "earthling." bridegroom, from Old English guma, man, from Germanic *gumōn‑.
  2. O-grade form *dh(e)ghom‑. chthonic; allochthon, autochthon, from Greek khthōn, earth.
  3. Zero-grade form *dhghm̥‑. chamaephyte, chameleon, chamomile, germander, from Greek khamai, on the ground.
  4. Suffixed o-grade form *(dh)ghom-o‑. humble, humiliate, humility, humus1; exhume, inhume, transhumance, from Latin humus, earth.
  5. Suffixed o-grade form *(dh)ghom-on‑, "earthling."
    1. homage, hombre1, hominid, hominin, Homo, homunculus, ombre, omerta; bonhomie, homicide, from Latin homō, human being, man;
    2. human, humane, from Latin hūmānus, human, kind, humane (in part from dhghem-).
  6. Suffixed form *(dh)ghem-yā‑. chernozem, sierozem, zemstvo, from Old Russian zemĭ, land, earth.
  7. Full-grade form *(dh)ghem‑. zamindar, from Persian zamīn, earth, land.
[Pokorny g̑hđem‑ 414.]

Yesterday. Oldest form *dhg̑h(y)es‑, becoming *dhgh(y)es‑ in centum languages. Suffixed (comparative) form *(dh)ghes-ter‑.
yester-, yesterday, from Old English geostran, giestran, "yester‑," from Germanic *ges-ter‑.
[Pokorny g̑hđi̯és 416.]

To stick, fix.
    1. dike1, ditch, from Old English dīc, trench, moat;
    2. dig, from Middle English diggen, to dig, from a source perhaps akin to Old French digue, trench. Both a and b from Germanic *dīk‑.
  1. fibula, fichu, finca, fishgig, fix, fixate, fixity, fixture; affix, antefix, crucify, infibulate, infix, microfiche, prefix, suffix, transfix, from Latin fīgere, to fasten, fix, and from fībula, clasp (shortened from *fīvibula, from fīvere, archaic variant of fīgere).
[Pokorny dhēig 243.]

To draw, glide. Oldest form *dhreg̑‑, becoming *dhreg‑ in centum languages.
  1. drink, from Old English drincan, to drink, from nasalized Germanic form *drenkan, to draw into the mouth, drink.
  2. drench, from Old English drencan, to soak, from nasalized o-grade Germanic causative form *drankjan, "to cause to drink.".
  3. drown, from a Scandinavian or late Old English source similar to Old Norse drukkna, to drown, from Germanic zero-grade suffixed form *drunk-nōn.
[Pokorny dhreg̑‑ 273.]

To drive, push; snow.
  1. drive, drove2, from Old English drīfan, to drive, rush, from Germanic *drīban.
  2. drift, from Middle English drift, drove, herd, akin to Old Norse drift, snowdrift, and Middle Dutch drift, herd, from Germanic zero-grade suffixed form *driftiz.
[Pokorny dhreibh‑ 274.]

To fall, flow, drip, droop.
Derivatives include dreary, and drowse.
  1. Extended form *dhreus‑. drizzle, from Old English -drysnian (in gedrysnian, to pass away, vanish), from zero-grade Germanic derived verb *drus-inōn.
  2. Extended o-grade form *dhrous‑.
    1. dreary, from Old English drēor, flowing blood, from Germanic *drauzaz;
    2. drowse, from Old English drūsian, to be sluggish, from Germanic *drūsjan.
  3. Extended zero-grade form *dhrub‑.
    1. drop, from Old English dropa, drop, from Germanic *drupan;
    2. droop, from Old Norse drūpa, to hang down, from Germanic *drūpōn, to let fall;
    3. drip, from Middle English drippen, to drip, drop, from an unattested Old English *dryppan or another source akin to Old English droppa, drop, from Germanic geminated *drupp‑;
    4. Germanic *drup‑, to drip, in compound *obisdrup‑ (see upo-).
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhrubh-yo‑. lithotripter, lithotrity, from Greek thruptein, to crumble.
[Pokorny dhreu‑ 274.]

Daughter. Oldest form *dhugh2ter‑.
daughter, from Old English dohtor, daughter, from Germanic *dohtēr.
[Pokorny dhug(h)əter 277.]

Door, doorway (usually in plural). Originally an ablauting noun *dhwor, *dhur‑, in the plural, designating the entrance to the enclosure (*dhwor-o‑) surrounding the house proper.
Derivatives include forest, and foreign.
  1. Zero-grade form *dhur‑ in suffixed forms *dhur-n̥s (accusative plural) and *dhur-o‑ (neuter) door, from Old English duru, door (feminine, originally plural), and dor, door (neuter), respectively from Germanic *durunz and *duram.
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *dhwor-āns (accusative plural) farouche, foreign, vicar forane, from Latin forās, (toward) out of doors, outside.
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhwor-ois (locative plural) forest; afforest, faubourg, foreclose, forfeit, from Latin forīs, (being) out of doors.
  4. Suffixed o-grade form *dhwor-o‑. forensic, forum, from Latin forum, marketplace (originally the enclosed space around a home).
  5. Dari; durbar, from Old Persian duvara‑, door, gate.
  6. Zero-grade form *dhur‑. thyroid; thyreophoran, from Greek thurā, door.
[Pokorny dhu̯ē̆r‑ 278.]

To engage oneself. European root found in Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, and possibly Latin.
    1. play, from Old English plegian, to exercise oneself, play;
    2. pledge; frankpledge, replevin, from Late Latin plevium (> Old French plevir, to pledge), pledge, guarantee;
    3. plight2, from Old English pliht, danger, peril, from Germanic derivative noun *plehti‑. a-c from Germanic *plegan, probably altered (by dissimilation) from *tlegan.
  1. Zero-grade form *dl̥gh‑. indulge, from Latin indulgēre, to indulge, explained by some as from prefixed and suffixed stative form *en-dl̥gh-ē‑ (*en‑, in; see en).
[Pokorny dhl̥gh‑ 271.]

Tongue. Oldest form *dn̥g̑huh2, becoming *dn̥g̑hū‑ in satem languages and *dn̥ghū‑ in centum languages.
    1. tongue, from Old English tunge, tongue;
    2. biltong, from Middle Dutch tonghe, tongue. Both a and b from Germanic *tungōn‑.
  1. language, languet, ligula, ligule, lingo, lingua, linguine, linguist; bilingual, from Latin lingua (< Archaic Latin dingua), tongue, language.
[Pokorny dn̥g̑hū 223.]

To give. Oldest form *deh3, colored to *doh3, becoming *dō‑.
Derivatives include betray, surrender, vend, dose, and antidote.
    1. Zero-grade form *də‑. dado, date1, dative, datum, die2; add, betray, edition, perdition, render, rent1, surrender, tradition, traitor, treason, vend, from Latin dare, to give;
    2. Greek dosis, something given (see 4 below).
  1. Suffixed form *dō-no‑. donation, donative, donor; condone, pardon, from Latin dōnum, gift.
  2. Suffixed form *dō-t(i)‑.
    1. dot2, dowager, dower, dowry; endow, from Latin dōs (genitive dōtis), dowry;
    2. dacha, from Russian dacha, gift, dacha, from Slavic *datja;
    3. samizdat, from Russian samizdat, samizdat, from dat', to give.
  3. Suffixed form *dō-ro‑. lobster thermidor, Pandora, from Greek dōron, gift.
  4. Reduplicated form *di-dō‑. dose; anecdote, antidote, apodosis, epidote, from Greek didonai, to give, with zero-grade noun dosis (< *də-ti‑), something given.
[Pokorny dō‑ 223.]

Bad, evil; mis- (used as a prefix). Derivative of deu-1.
  1. dys-, from Greek dus‑, bad.
  2. Durga, from Sanskrit Durgā, Durga (short for durgā devī, goddess who is difficult to approach), from durgā, feminine of durga‑, difficult to approach, from dus‑ (becoming dur‑ before voiced consonants), bad, difficult (*-ga‑, going, coming; see gwā-).
[Pokorny dus‑ 227.]

Derivatives include twilight, biscuit, between, combine, diploma, and doubt.
  1. Variant form *duwo.
      1. two, from Old English twā̆, two (nominative feminine and neuter);
      2. twain; twayblade, from Old English twēgen, two (nominative and accusative masculine). Both a and b from Germanic *twa, two.
    1. twelfth, twelve, from Old English twelf, twelve, and twelfta, twelfth, from Germanic compound *twa-lif‑, "two left (over from ten)," twelve (*-lif‑, left; see leikw-).
  2. Adverbial form *dwis and combining form *dwi‑.
      1. twilight, from Old English twi‑, two;
      2. zwieback, zwitterion, from Old High German zwi‑, twice. Both a and b from Germanic *twi‑.
    1. bi-1, bis, bis-; balance, barouche, bezel, biscuit, bistort, from Latin bis (combining form bi‑), twice.
    2. di-1, from Greek dis (combining form di‑), twice.
    3. twist, from Old English -twist, divided object, fork, rope, from Germanic *twis.
    4. twice, from Old English twige, twiga, twice, from Germanic *twiyes.
    5. twenty, from Old English twēntig, twenty, from Germanic compound *twēgentig, "twice ten" (*-tig, ten; see dekm̥).
    6. twine, from Old English twīn, double thread, from Germanic *twīhna, double thread, twisted thread.
    7. between, betwixt, twixt, from Old English betwēonum and betweox, betwix, between, from Germanic compounds *bi-twīhna and *bi-twisk, "at the middle point of two" (bi, at, by; see ambhi).
    8. twill, from Old English twilic, woven of double thread, from Germanic compound *twilic‑, "two-threaded fabric.".
    9. Suffixed form *dwis-no‑.
      1. twin, from Old English twinn, getwinn, two by two, twin, from Germanic *twisnaz, double;
      2. bi-1, binal, binary; combine, pinochle, from Latin bīnī, two by two, two each.
    10. Suffixed form *dwi-ko‑. twig1, from Old English twigge, a branch, from Germanic *twig(g)a, a fork.
    11. Compound *dwi-plo‑, twofold (*-plo‑,-fold; see pel-2). diplo-, diploe, diploid, diploma; anadiplosis, diplodocus, from Greek diploos, diplous, twofold.
    12. Suffixed reduplicated form *dwi-du-mo‑. didymium, didymous; epididymis, from Greek didumos, double, the testicles.
    13. Suffixed form *dwi-gha. dichasium, dicho-, from Greek dikha, in two.
    14. Dhivehi, from Sanskrit dvīpaḥ, island, from earlier *dvi-əp-o‑ "having water on two sides" (*ap‑, əp‑, water).
  3. Inflected form *duwō.
    1. deuce1, dozen, dual, duet, duo, duo-; duodecimal, duumvir, from Latin duo, two.
    2. duad, dyad; dodecagon, hendiadys, from Greek duo, duō, two.
  4. Variant form *du‑.
    1. Compound *du-plo‑, twofold (*-plo‑,-fold; see pel-2). double, doublet, doubloon, duple, from Latin duplus, double.
    2. Compound *du-plek‑, twofold (*-plek‑,-fold; see plek-). duplex, duplicate, duplicity; conduplicate, from Latin duplex, double.
    3. Suffixed form *du-bhw-io‑. doubt, dubious; redoubtable, from Latin dubius, doubtful (< "hesitating between two alternatives"), and dubitāre, to be in doubt.
  5. Also ultimately from this root, although the exact preform is unclear, is the Middle Indic prefix *du‑, two. dupatta.
[Pokorny du̯ō(u) 228.]

To shine (and in many derivatives, "sky, heaven, god"). Zero-grades *dyu‑ and *diw‑.
Derivatives include Tuesday, divine, jovial, Jupiter, diary, dismal, journey, and psychedelic.
  1. Basic form *dyeu‑, Jove, the name of the god of the bright sky, head of the Indo-European pantheon.
    1. Jove, jovial; apojove, perijove, Sangiovese, from Latin Iovis, Jupiter, or Iov‑, stem of Iuppiter, Jupiter.
    2. July, from Latin Iūlius, "descended from Jupiter" (name of a Roman gens), from derivative *iou-il‑.
    3. Vocative compound *dyeu-pəter, "O father Jove" (*pəter‑, father; see pəter-). Jupiter, from Latin Iuppiter, Iūpiter, head of the Roman pantheon.
    4. Dione, Zeus; dianthus, Dioscuri, from Greek Zeus (genitive Dios), Zeus.
  2. Noun *deiwos, god, formed by e-insertion to the zero-grade *diw‑ and suffixation of (accented) -o‑.
      1. Tiu, Tuesday, from Old English Tīw (genitive Tīwes), god of war and sky;
      2. Tyr, from Old Norse Tȳr, sky god. Both a and b from Germanic *Tīwaz.
    1. deism, deity, joss; adieu, adios, deific, deus ex machina, from Latin deus, god.
    2. diva, divine, from Latin dīvus, divine, god.
    3. Dis, Dives, from Latin dīves, rich (< "fortunate, blessed, divine").
    4. Suffixed zero-grade form *diw-yo‑, heavenly. Diana, from Latin Diāna, moon goddess.
    5. deva, Devi; deodar, Devanagari, from Sanskrit devaḥ, god, and deva‑, divine.
    6. Asmodeus, from Avestan daēuua‑, spirit, demon.
  3. Variant *dyē‑ (< *dyeə‑) dial, diary, diet2, dismal, diurnal, journal, journey; adjourn, ajouré, circadian, meridian, postmeridian, quotidian, sojourn, from Latin diēs, day.
  4. Variant *deiə‑. psychedelic, adelgid, from Greek dēlos (< *deyalos), clear.
[Pokorny 1. dei‑ 183.]

To eat; original meaning "to bite." Oldest form *h1ed‑.
    1. eat, from Old English etan, to eat;
    2. etch, from Old High German ezzen, to feed on, eat;
    3. ort, from Middle Dutch eten, to eat;
      1. fret1, from Old English fretan, to devour;
      2. frass, from Old High German frezzan, to devour. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *fra-etan, to eat up (*fra‑, completely; see per1). a-d all from Germanic *etan.
  1. edacious, edible, escarole, esculent, esurient; comedo, comestible, obese, from Latin edere, to eat.
  2. prandial, from Latin compound prandium, lunch, probably from *prām-(e)d-yo‑, "first meal," *prām‑, first; see per1.
  3. Suffixed form *ed-un-o‑. jotun, from Old Norse jötunn, giant, jotun, from Germanic idunaz (perhaps < "immense eater" or "man-eating giant").
  4. Suffixed form *ed-un-ā‑. anodyne, pleurodynia, from Greek odunē, pain (< "gnawing care").
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form *əd-ti‑. alfalfa, from Old Iranian *-sti‑, food, in compound.*aspa-sti‑clover, alfalfa ("horse food") (*aspa‑, horse; see ekwo-).
  6. Samoyed, from Russian -ed, eater.
[Pokorny ed‑ 287.]
See also derivative dent-.

I. Nominative form of the personal pronoun of the first person singular. Oldest form *eg̑, becoming *eg in centum languages. (For oblique forms see me-1).
  1. I1, from Old English ic, I, from Germanic *ek.
  2. Extended form *egō. ego, egoist, egotism, from Latin ego, I.
[Pokorny eg̑‑ 291.]

Out. Oldest form *eg̑hs, becoming *eghs in centum languages.
Derivatives include strange, and extreme.
  1. Variant *eks.
    1. ex1, ex-; deus ex machina, from Latin ex, ex‑, out of, away from;
    2. ecto-, ex-, exo-, exoteric, exotic; ekpyrotic, electuary, lekvar, synecdoche, from Greek ex, ek, out of, from.
  2. Suffixed (comparative) variant form *eks-tero‑.
    1. estrange, exterior, external, extra-, strange, from Latin exter, outward (feminine ablative exterā, extrā, on the outside);
    2. further suffixed (superlative) form *eks-t(e)r-ēmo‑. extreme, extremum, from Latin extrēmus, outermost (*-mo‑, superlative suffix).
  3. Suffixed form *eghs-ko‑. eschatology, from Greek eskhatos, outermost, last.
  4. Celtic *eks‑, out (of), in compound *eks-dī-sedo‑ (see sed-).
  5. samizdat, from Russian iz, from, out of, from Balto-Slavic *iz.
[Pokorny eg̑hs 292.]

To drink. Oldest form *h1egwh‑.Suffixed lengthened-grade form *ēgwh-r-yo‑.
  1. inebriate, ryegrass, from Latin ēbrius, drunk;
  2. Latin compound sōbrius (see s(w)e-).
[Not in Pokorny; compare Hittite ekuzi, he drinks, and Greek nēphein, to be sober (< "not drink," *ne-ēgwh‑).]

To go. Oldest form *h1ei‑, zero-grade *h1i‑.
Derivatives include ambition, perish, sudden, transit, ion, initial, janitor, and January.
  1. Full-grade form *ei‑.
    1. adit, ambient, ambition, circuit, coitus, comitia, exit, introit, issue, obituary, perish, praetor, preterite, sedition, subito, sudden, trance, transient, transit, transitive, from Latin īre, to go;
    2. ion; anion, cation, dysprosium, from Greek ienai, to go;
    3. Ramayana, from Sanskrit eti, he goes (< Indo-Iranian *ai-ti), and abstract noun ayanam, a going, way.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *i-t‑.
    1. Further suffixed form *i-t-yo‑. commence, initial, initiate, from Latin initium, entrance, beginning (in‑, in; see en).
    1. count2, county; concomitant, constable, viscount, from Latin comes (stem comit‑), companion (< "one who goes with another"; com‑, with; see kom).
  3. Suffixed form *i-ter. errant, eyre, itinerant, itinerary, from Latin iter, journey.
  4. Perhaps suffixed form *i-ti‑. Gastarbeiter, from Old High German arabeiti, labor, from Germanic *arbaithi‑ (see orbh-).
  5. Extended form *yā‑ (< *h1yah2, colored from earlier *h1yeh2) in suffixed forms *yā-no‑, *yā-nu‑.
    1. janitor, January, Janus, from Latin iānus, archway, and Iānus, god of doors and of the beginning of a year;
    2. Hinayana, Mahayana, from Sanskrit yānam, way (in Buddhism, "mode of knowledge," "vehicle").
[Pokorny 1. ei‑ 293.]

In words denoting passion. Oldest form *h1eis‑ or possibly *h1eish2.
  1. Suffixed form *eis-ā‑. irascible, irate, ire, from Latin īra, anger.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *is-(ə)ro‑, powerful, holy. hieratic, hiero-; hierarch, hierarchy, hierodule, hieroglyphic, hierophant, from Greek hieros, "filled with the divine," holy.
    1. iron, from Old English īse(r)n, īren, iron;
    2. gisarme, spiegeleisen, from Old High German īsarn, īsan, iron. Both a and b from Germanic *īsarno‑, "holy metal" (possibly from Celtic).
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *ois-tro‑, madness. estrus; estrogen, estrone, from Greek oistros, gadfly, goad, anything causing madness.
  4. Suffixed form *eis-mo. Asmodeus, from Avestan aēšma‑, anger.
[Pokorny 1. eis‑ 299.]

Horse. Probably to be segmented *ekw-o‑, a suffixed form akin to the lengthened o-grade adjective ōku- , swift. Oldest form h1ek̑wo‑, becoming ekwo‑ in centum languages.
  1. equestrian, equid, equine, equitant, equitation, Equuleus; equisetum, from Latin equus, horse.
  2. eohippus, hippocampus, Hippocrene, hippodrome, hippogriff, hippopotamus, from Greek hippos, horse.
  3. alfalfa, from Old Iranian *aspa‑, horse.
[Pokorny ek̑u̯o-s 301.]

Elbow, forearm.
  1. Extended form *el-inā‑, elbow.
    1. ell2, from Old English eln, forearm, cubit, from Germanic *elinō;
    2. elbow, from Old English elnboga, elbow, from Germanic compound *elino-bugōn‑, "bend of the forearm," elbow (*bugōn‑, bend, bow; see bheug-);
    3. ulna, from Latin ulna, forearm.
  2. Extended o-grade form *ol-enā‑. uilleann pipe, from Old Irish uilenn, elbow.
  3. Extended lengthened o-grade form *ōl-enā‑. olecranon, from Greek ōlenē, elbow.
  4. Extended basic form *el-in‑. arshin, from Old Persian arašn‑, ell, from Indo-Iranian *aratn(i)‑, probably from a variant *el-etn‑ of *el-in‑.
[Pokorny 8. el‑ 307.]

To take, distribute.
  1. ademption, example, exemplary, exemplify, exemplum, exempt, impromptu, peremptory, preemption, premium, prompt, pronto, ransom, redeem, redemption, sample, vintage, from Latin emere, to obtain, buy.
  2. sumptuary, sumptuous; assume, consume, presume, resume, subsume, from Latin sūmere (< *sus(e)m‑), to take, obtain, buy (sus‑, variant of sub‑, up from under; see upo).
[Pokorny em‑ 310.]

Derivatives include inner, entrails, industry, and dysentery.
    1. in1, (preposition), from Old English in, in;
    2. in1, (adverb), from Old English inn, into, inne, inside;
    3. inn, from Old English inn, habitation, inn;
    4. tsimmes, from Old High German in, in;
    5. inner, from Old English innera, farther in, inner, from Germanic (comparative) *inn(e)ra;
      1. ben, from Old English binnan, within;
      2. bilander, from Middle Dutch binnen, within (be, by; see ambhi + innan, in, within). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *innan. a-f all from Germanic *in.
  1. en-1, in-2, from Latin in, in‑, in, into.
  2. en-2; enkephalin, parenchyma, parenthesis, from Greek en, en‑.
  3. Suffixed form *en-t(e)ro‑.
    1. intro-; introduce, introit, intromit, introrse, introspect, from Latin intrō, inward, within;
    2. enter, intra-; intrados, from Latin intrā, inside, within;
    3. interim, intrinsic, from Latin interim, meanwhile, with ablative suffix -im, and intrīnsecus, on the inside, from int(e)rim + secus, alongside (see sekw-1).
  4. Suffixed form *en-ter. entrails, inter-, interior, intern, internal, from Latin inter, inter‑, between, among.
  5. intima, intimate2, from Latin (superlative) intimus, innermost (*-mo‑, superlative suffix).
  6. Extended form *en-do.
    1. industry, from Latin industrius, diligent (Archaic Latin indostruus; *stru‑, to construct; see ster-2);
    2. indigent, from Latin indigēre, to be in need (egēre, to be in need). Both a and b from indu‑, within, from Archaic Latin endo;
    3. endo-, from Greek endon, endo‑, within.
  7. Suffixed form *en-tos.
    1. dedans, intestine, intine, intussusception, from Latin intus, within, inside;
    2. ento-, from Greek entos, within.
  8. Suffixed form *en-tero‑.
    1. enteric, entero-, enteron; dysentery, exenterate, mesentery, from Greek enteron, intestine;
    2. atoll, perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit antara‑, interior.
  9. Extended form *ens.
    1. episode, from Greek eis, into;
    2. suffixed form *ens-ō. esoteric, esotropia, from Greek esō, within.
  10. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *n̥-dha. and, from Old English and, and, from Germanic *anda, *unda.
[Pokorny 1. en 311.]

Also opi.
Near, at, against.
  1. ob-, from Latin ob, ob‑, before, to, against.
  2. epi-, from Greek epi, on, over, at.
  3. opisthobranch, opisthognathous, from Greek opisthen, behind, at the back.
  4. Zero-grade form *pi, on, in Greek piezein (see sed-).
  5. oblast, from Russian oblast', oblast, from Old Church Slavonic ob, on.
  6. Reduced prefixal form *op‑ in *op-wer-yo‑ (see wer-4).
  7. duopsony, opsonin, from Greek *ops, extra on the side, with, in noun opson, condiment, cooked food.
[Pokorny epi 323.]

To move, set in motion. Oldest form *h1er‑.
  1. Basic form *er‑.
    1. Probably Germanic *ar‑, *or‑, *art(a), to be, exist. are1, art2, from Old English eart and aron, second person singular and plural present of bēon, to be.
    2. Perhaps Germanic suffixed form *er-n-os-ti‑. earnest1, from Old English eornoste, zealous, serious.
    3. Uncertain o-grade suffixed form *ori-yo‑. orient, origin, original; abort, from Latin orīrī, to arise, appear, be born.
    4. Suffixed o-grade form *or-smā‑. hormesis, hormone, from Greek hormē, impulse, onrush.
  2. Enlarged extended form *rei-s‑.
    1. rise; arise, from Old English rīsan, from Germanic *rīsan;
    2. Suffixed o-grade (causative) form *rois-ye‑.
      1. rear2, from Old English rǣran, to rear, raise, lift up;
      2. raise, from Old Norse reisa, to raise. Both a and b from Germanic *raizjan.
[Pokorny 3. er‑ 326; ergh‑ 339.]

Earth, ground. Extended form *ert‑.
  1. earth, from Old English eorthe, earth;
  2. aardvark, aardwolf, from Middle Dutch aerde, eerde, earth. Both a and b from Germanic *erthō.
[Pokorny 4. er‑ 332.]

To row. Oldest form *h1erh1.
  1. Variant form *rē‑ (contracted from *reh1, from earlier *h1reh1).
    1. row2, from Old English rōwan, to row, from Germanic *rō‑;
    2. suffixed form *rō-tro‑. rudder, Rus, Russian, Russky, from Old English rōther and Old Norse rōdhr, steering oar, both from Germanic *rōthra, rudder;
    3. suffixed form *rē-smo‑. bireme, remex, trireme, from Latin rēmus, oar.
  2. Oldest variant form *h1reh1 becoming *erē‑ in Greek. trierarch, from Greek triērēs, trireme.
[Pokorny 1. erə‑ 338.]

To be in motion.
  1. Variant form *rēs‑. race2, from Old Norse rās, rushing, from Germanic *rēs‑.
  2. Suffixed form *ers-ā‑. err, erratic, erratum, erroneous, error; aberration, from Latin errāre, to wander.
  3. Possible zero-grade form *r̥s-i‑. rishi, from Sanskrit ṛṣiḥ, poet, seer.
[Pokorny 2. ere-s‑ 336.]

To be. Oldest form *h1es‑, zero-grade *h1s‑.
Derivatives include yes, soothe, sin1, essence, absent, and proud.
  1. Athematic first person singular form *es-mi. am, from Old English eam, eom, am, from Germanic *izm(i).
  2. Athematic third person singular form *es-ti. is, from Old English is, is, from Germanic *ist(i).
  3. Optative stem *sī‑. yes, from Old English gēse, yes, from sīe, may it be (so) (gēa, yea; see i-), from Germanic *sijai‑.
  4. Suffixed zero-grade (participial) form *h1s-ont‑, becoming *sont‑, being, existing, hence real, true.
    1. sooth, soothe, from Old English sōth, true, from Germanic *santhaz;
    2. suffixed (collective) zero-grade form *sn̥t-yā‑, "that which is." sin1, from Old English synn, sin, from Germanic *sun(d)jō, sin (< "it is true," "the sin is real");
    3. suttee; bodhisattva, Satyagraha, from Sanskrit sat‑, sant‑, existing, true, virtuous.
  5. Basic form *es‑. entity, essence; abessive, absent, adessive, essive, improve, inessive, interest, ossia, present1, present2, proud, quintessence, represent, stover, from Latin esse, to be.
  6. Basic form *es‑. -ont, onto-; -biont, Homoiousian, Parousia, schizont, from Greek einai (present participle ont‑, being), to be (in pareinai, to be present).
  7. Suffixed form *es-ti‑. swastika, from Sanskrit svasti, well-being (su‑, good; see (e)su-).
[Pokorny es‑ 340.]
See also extension (e)su-.

Good. Oldest form *h1(e)su‑. Originally suffixed form of es-.
  1. eu-, from Greek eu‑, well, combining form of eus, good.
    1. swastika, from Sanskrit svasti, well-being, good luck (-asti, being; see es-);
    2. nainsook, from Sanskrit sukha‑, running easily (said of a chariot), pleasant ("having good axle-holes"; kham, axle-hole). Both a and b from Sanskrit su‑, good.
  2. cushy, perhaps from Urdu khūš, good, from Persian khvaš, perhaps from Old Iranian *khvaxša‑, having a good appearance, from hu‑ ( becoming khv‑ before vowels), good (-axša‑, eye; see okw-).
[Pokorny esu-s 342.]

To dress.
  1. endue, indumentum, from Latin induere, to don (ind‑, variant of in‑, in, on; see en).
  2. exuviae, from Latin exuere, to doff (ex‑, off; see eghs).
  3. reduviid, from Latin reduvia, fragment (red‑, back, in reverse; see re-).
[Pokorny 2. eu‑ 346.]
See also extension wes-2.

To leave, abandon, give out, whence nominal derivatives meaning abandoned, lacking, empty. Oldest form *h1euh2, zero-grade *h1uh2, with variant form *h1weh2, colored to *h1wah2, becoming *wā‑.
  1. Suffixed form *wə-no‑.
    1. wane; wanton, from Old English wanian, to lessen (from Germanic *wanēn), and wan‑, without;
    2. want, from Old Norse vanta, to lack, from North Germanic *wanatōn.
  2. Suffixed form *wā-no‑. vain, vanity, vaunt; evanesce, vanish, from Latin vānus, empty.
  3. Extended form *wak‑. vacant, vacate, vacation, vacuity, vacuum, void; avoid, devoid, evacuate, from Latin vacāre (variant vocāre), to be empty.
  4. Extended and suffixed form *wās-to‑. waste; devastate, from Latin vāstus, empty, waste.
[Pokorny 1. eu‑ 345.]

Udder. Related to wē-r-.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ūdh-r̥. udder, from Old English ūder, udder, from Germanic *ūdr‑.
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *oudh-r̥. exuberant, exuberate, from Latin adjective ūber, fertile, derived from ūber, "breast.".
[Pokorny ēudh‑ 347.]

To call, shout.
  1. call, from Old Norse kalla, to call, from Germanic expressive form *kall‑.
  2. clatter, from Old English *clatrian, to clatter, from Germanic *klat‑.
  3. Expressive form *gall‑. gallinaceous, gallinule; pico de gallo, from Latin gallus, cock (< "the calling bird"; but probably also associated with Gallus, Gallic, as if to mean "the bird of Gaul," the cock being archaeologically attested as an important symbol in the iconography of Roman and pre-Roman Gaul).
  4. Suffixed form *gal-so‑. glasnost, from Old Church Slavonic glasŭ, voice.
  5. Reduplicated form *gal-gal‑. Glagolitic, from Old Church Slavonic glagolŭ, word.
[Pokorny 2. gal‑ 350.]

To rejoice; also to have religious fear or awe. Oldest form *geh2u‑, colored to *gah2u‑, becoming *gau‑ (before consonants) and *gāw‑ (before vowels).
  1. Suffixed extended form *gāw-idh-ē‑. gaud, gaudy1, gaudy2, joy; enjoy, rejoice, from Latin gaudēre, to rejoice.
  2. Form (with nasal infix) *gə-n-u‑. ganoid, from Greek ganusthai, to rejoice.
[Pokorny gāu‑ 353.]

Cold; to freeze.
Derivatives include chill, jelly, and glacier.
  1. chill, from Old English c(i)ele, chill, from Germanic *kaliz, coldness.
  2. cold, from Old English ceald, cold, from Germanic *kaldaz, cold.
    1. cool, from Old English cōl, cold, cool;
    2. keel3, from Old English cēlan, to cool, from Germanic *kōljan, to cool. Both a and b from Germanic *kōl‑, cool.
  3. Suffixed form *gel-ā‑. gelatin, gelation, jelly; congeal, from Latin gelāre, to freeze.
  4. Suffixed form *gel-u‑. gelid, from Latin gelū, frost, cold.
  5. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *gl̥-k‑. glacé, glacial, glaciate, glacier, glacis; demi-glace, verglas, from Latin glaciēs, ice.
[Pokorny 3. gel(ə)‑ 365.]

Tooth, nail. Oldest form *g̑embh‑, becoming *gembh‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include comb, unkempt, and gem.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *gombh-o‑.
      1. comb, kame, from Old English comb, camb, comb;
      2. cam, from Dutch kam, cog, comb;
      3. unkempt, from Old English cemban, to comb, from Germanic denominative *kambjan, to comb. (i)-(iii) all from Germanic *kambaz, comb.
    1. gomphosis, from Greek gomphos, tooth, peg, bolt.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *gm̥bh-ōn‑. oakum, from Old English ā-cumba, part of flax separated in hackling, oakum ("stuff combed off"; ā‑, away, off).
  3. Perhaps Germanic *kimb‑. chime2, from Old English cim‑, cimb‑, rim (only in compounds),.
  4. Possibly suffixed form *gembh-mā‑. gem, gemma, gemmation, gemmule, from Latin gemma, bud, hence gem.
[Pokorny g̑embh‑ 369.]

To marry. Oldest form *g̑emh1, becoming *gemh1 in centum languages.
Suffixed zero-grade form *gm̥ə-o‑. gamete, gamo-, -gamous, -gamy, from Greek gamos, marriage.
[Pokorny g̑em(e)‑ 369.]

Also gen-.
To give birth, beget; with derivatives referring to aspects and results of procreation and to familial and tribal groups. Oldest form *g̑enh1, becoming *genh1 in centum languages.
Derivatives include kin, king, jaunty, genius, pregnant1, gingerly, and nature.
  1. Basic form *genə‑.
    1. Suffixed form *genə-es‑.
      1. gender, general, generate, generation, generic, generous, genre, genus; congener, degenerate, engender, miscegenation, from Latin genus, race, kind;
      2. gene; allogeneic, genealogy, genocide, genotype, heterogeneous, syngeneic, from Greek genos and geneā, race, family;
      3. -gen, -geny; epigene, from Greek suffix -genēs, "-born.".
    2. Suffixed form *gen(ə)-yo‑.
      1. genial1, genius; congenial, from Latin genius, procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality;
      2. engine, ingenious, from Latin ingenium, inborn character (in‑, in; see en).
    3. Suffixed form *genə-ā‑. indigen, indigenous, from Latin indigena, born in (a place), indigenous (indu‑, within; see en).
    4. Suffixed form *genə-wo‑. genuine, ingenuous, from Latin ingenuus, born in (a place), native, natural, freeborn (in‑, in; see en).
    5. Suffixed form *gen(ə)-men‑. germ, german2, germane, germinal, germinate, from dissimilated Latin germen, shoot, bud, embryo, germ.
  2. O-grade form *gonə‑, reduced to *gon‑ in suffixed form *gon-o‑.
    1. gonad, gono-, -gony; archegonium, carpogonium, epigone, from Greek gonos, child, procreation, seed.
    2. Harijan, from Sanskrit janaḥ, offspring, child, person.
  3. Zero-grade form *gn̥ə‑.
    1. Suffixed form *gn̥ə-yo‑.
      1. kin; kindred, from Old English cyn(n), race, family, kin;
      2. king, from Old English cyning, king, from Germanic *kuningaz, king. Both a and b from Germanic *kunjam, family.
    2. Suffixed form *gn̥ə-t‑.
      1. kind2, from Old English cynd, gecynd(e), origin, birth, race, family, kind, from Germanic *kundjaz, family, race;
      2. kind1, from Old English gecynde, natural, native, fitting (ge‑, collective prefix; see kom), from Germanic *kundiz, natural, native;
      3. suffixed form *gn̥ə-ti‑.
        1. gens, genteel, gentile, gentle, gentry, jaunty; gendarme, from Latin gēns (stem genti‑), race, clan;
        2. genesis, -genesis, from Greek genesis, birth, beginning.
      4. kindergarten, Kriss Kringle, wunderkind, from Old High German kind, child, from Germanic secondary full-grade variant *kentham;
      5. suffixed form *gn̥ə-to‑. Jataka, from Sanskrit jāta‑, born (verbal adjective of janate, he is born).
    3. Reduplicated form *gi-gn(ə)‑. genital, genitive, genitor, geniture, gent1, gingerly; congenital, primogenitor, primogeniture, progenitor, progeny, from Latin gignere (past participle genitus), to beget.
    4. Reduced form *gn‑ in suffixed form *-gn-o‑. benign, malign, from Latin benignus, good-natured, kindly (bene, well; see deu-2) and malignus, evil-natured, malevolent (male, ill; see mel-3).
    5. Zero-grade form *gn̥ə‑ becoming *gnā‑. pregnant1; impregnate, from Latin praegnās, pregnant (prae‑, before; see per1).
    6. Suffixed form *gn̥ə-sko‑ becoming *gnā-sko‑. nada, naive, nascent, natal, nation, native, nature, née, Noël; adnate, agnate, cognate, connate, enate, innate, neonate, puisne, puny, renaissance, from Latin gnāscī, nāscī (past participle gnātus, nātus), to be born.
    7. Reduced form *gn̥‑ in Sanskrit compound kṛmi-ja‑ (see kwr̥mi-).
[Pokorny 1. g̑en‑ 373.]

Knee; also angle. Oldest form *g̑enu‑, becoming *genu‑ in centum languages.
  1. Variant form *gneu‑.
    1. knee, from Old English cnēo, knee, from Germanic *knewam;
    2. kneel, from Old English cnēowlian, to kneel, from Germanic *knewljan.
  2. Basic form *genu‑. geniculate, genuflect, from Latin genū, knee.
  3. O-grade form *gonu. polygonum, pycnogonid, from Greek gonu, knee.
  4. Suffixed variant form *gōnw-yə‑. -gon; amblygonite, diagonal, goniometer, orthogonal, from Greek gōniā, angle, corner.
[Pokorny 1. g̑enu‑ 380.]

Jawbone, chin. Oldest form *g̑enu‑, becoming *genu‑ in centum languages.
  1. Form *genw‑. chin, from Old English cin(n), chin, from Germanic *kinnuz.
  2. Basic form *genu‑. genial2, from Greek genus, jaw.
  3. Suffixed variant form *gnə-dho‑. ganache, gnathal, gnathic, -gnathous; agnathan, chaetognath, compsognathus, gnathostome, from Greek gnathos, jaw.
  4. Variant form *g(h)enu‑. hanuman, from Sanskrit hanu, jaw.
[Pokorny 2. g̑enu‑ 381.]

To gather. Oldest form *h2ger‑.
  1. Extended form *grem‑. cram, from Old English crammian, to stuff, cram, from Germanic *kramm‑.
  2. Reduplicated form *gre-g‑. gregarious, greige; aggregate, congregate, egregious, segregate, from Latin grex (stem greg‑), herd, flock.
  3. Basic form *əger‑, with suffixed o-grade form *əgor-ā‑. agora1, agoraphobia, allegory, category, panegyric, from Greek ageirein, to assemble, and aguris, agorā, marketplace.
[Pokorny 1. ger‑ 382.]

To scratch.
Derivatives include carve, crawl1, and program.
  1. carve, from Old English ceorfan, to cut, from Germanic *kerban.
  2. kerf, from Old English cyrf, a cutting (off), from zero-grade Germanic form *kurbiz.
  3. Variant form *grebh‑.
    1. crab1, from Old English crabba, a crab, from Germanic *krab(b)‑;
    2. crayfish, from Old High German kerbiz, edible crustacean, from Germanic *krabiz‑;
    3. perhaps Germanic *krab‑. crawl1, from Old Norse krafla, to crawl.
  4. Zero-grade form *gr̥bh‑.
    1. glamour, graffito, graft1, gram1, -gram, grammar, -graph, -grapher, graphic, -graphy; agrapha, agraphia, anagram, diagram, epigram, epigraph, graphite, iconography, paragraph, parallelogram, program, pseudepigrapha, Tetragrammaton, topography, from Greek graphein, to scratch, draw, write, gramma (< *gr̥bh-mn̥), a picture, written letter, piece of writing, and grammē, a line;
    2. landgrave, margrave, palsgrave, from Middle Dutch grāve and Middle Low German grave, count, from West Germanic *grafa, a designation of rank, possibly borrowed from Greek grapheus, scribe.
[Pokorny gerebh‑ 392.]

To grow old. Oldest form *g̑erh2, becoming *gerh2 in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *gērə-s‑. ageratum, geriatrics, from Greek gēras, old age.
  2. Suffixed form *gerə-ont‑. geronto-, from Greek gerōn (stem geront‑), old man.
[Pokorny g̑er‑ 390.]

To cry hoarsely; also the name of the crane. Oldest form *gerh2.
Derivatives include crack, cranberry, and pedigree.
  1. Words meaning "to cry hoarsely"; also words denoting the crow.
      1. crow1, from Old English crāwe, a crow;
      2. crow2, from Old English crāwan, to crow;
      3. crack, from Old English cracian, to resound;
      4. cracknel, from Middle Dutch krāken, to crack;
      5. crake, from Old Norse krāka, a crow;
      6. croon, from Middle Dutch krōnen, to groan, lament. a-f all from Germanic *krē‑.
    1. Possibly from this root (but more likely imitative) is Germanic *kur(r)‑. cur, from Middle English curre, cur, akin to Old Norse kurra, to growl.
  2. Words denoting a crane.
      1. crane, from Old English cran, crane;
      2. cranberry, from Middle Low German kran, crane. Both a and b from Germanic *kran‑, crane.
    1. Extended form *grū‑. Grus; pedigree, from Latin grūs, crane.
    2. Suffixed variant form *grā-k‑. grackle, from Latin grāculus, jackdaw.
    3. Suffixed extended form *gerə-no‑. geranium, from Greek geranos, crane.
[Pokorny 2. ger‑ 383.]

To taste, choose. Oldest form *g̑eus‑, becoming *geus‑ in centum languages.
    1. choose, from Old English cēosan, ceōsan, to choose, from Germanic *keusan;
    2. choice, from a Germanic source akin to Gothic kausjan, to test, taste, from Germanic causative *kausjan.
  1. ageusia, from Greek geuesthai, to taste.
  2. Zero-grade form *gus‑. Valkyrie, from Old Norse Valkyrja, "chooser of the slain," Valkyrie (valr, the slain; see welə-), from Germanic *kuz‑.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *gus-tu‑. gust2, gusto; ragout, from Latin gustus, taste.
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *gus-to‑, whence further suffixed (frequentative) form *gus-t-ā‑. gustation; degust, disgust, from Latin gustāre, to taste.
[Pokorny g̑eus‑ 399.]

Also ghebh-.
To give or receive.
Derivatives include give, able, malady, prohibit, duty, and endeavor.
  1. Form *ghebh‑.
    1. give, from Old English giefan, to give, and Old Norse gefa, to give;
    2. zeitgeber, from Old High German geban, to give;
    3. forgive, from Old English forgi(e)fan, to give, give up, leave off (anger), remit, forgive, from Germanic compound *far-geban, to give away (*far‑, away; see per1). a-c all from Germanic *geban.
  2. Suffixed form *ghebh-ti‑, something given (or received) gift, from Old Norse gipt, gift, a gift, from Germanic *giftiz.
  3. O-grade form *ghobh‑. gavel2, from Old English gafol, tribute, tax, debt, from Germanic *gab-ulam, something paid (or received).
  4. Form *ghabh-ē‑.
    1. able, binnacle, habile, habit, habitable, habitant, habitat; avoirdupois, cohabit, exhibit, inhabit, inhibit, malady, prebend, prohibit, provender, from Latin habēre, to hold, possess, have, handle (> habitāre, to dwell);
    2. debenture, debit, debt, devoir, due, duty; endeavor, from Latin dēbēre, to owe (dē‑, away from; see de-).
[Pokorny ghabh‑ 407. ]
Compare kap-.

Goose. Oldest form *g̑hans‑, becoming *ghans‑ in centum languages.
    1. goose; goshawk, from Old English gōs (nominative plural gēs), goose;
    2. gosling, from Old Norse gās, goose;
    3. gunsel, from Old High German gans, goose;
    4. gonzo, from Spanish ganso, goose, from a Germanic source akin to Old High German gans, goose. a-d all from Germanic *gans‑ (nominative plural *gansiz).
  1. gander, from Old English ganra, gandra, gander, from Germanic *gan(d)rōn‑.
  2. gannet, from Old English ganot, gannet, from Germanic *ganōtōn‑.
  3. Suffixed form *ghans-er‑. anserine; merganser, from Latin ānser (< *hanser), goose.
  4. Basic form *ghans‑. chenopod, from Greek khēn, goose.
[Pokorny g̑han-s‑ 412.]

To release, let go; (in the middle voice) to be released, go. Oldest form *g̑heh1, becoming *g̑hē‑ in satem languages and *ghē‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include heir, and gait.
  1. go1; ago, forego1, forgo, from Old English gān, to go, from Germanic variant form *gaian.
  2. Suffixed form *ghē-ro‑. heir, hereditament, heredity, heritage; inherit, from Latin hērēs, heir (? < "orphan" < "bereft").
  3. Possibly suffixed o-grade form *ghō-ro‑, "empty space."
    1. -chore, horiatiki; anchorite, chorography, from Greek khōros, place, country, particular spot;
    2. choripetalous, from Greek khōris, khōri, apart, separate.
  4. Possible suffixed zero-grade form *ghə-t(w)ā‑.
    1. gait, gate2, from Old Norse gata, path, street;
    2. gantlet1, gauntlet2, from Old Swedish gata, lane. Both a and b from Germanic *gatwōn‑, a going.
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghə-no‑. Hinayana, from Sanskrit hīna‑, inferior, verbal adjective of jahāti, he leaves, lets go (< reduplicated *ghe-ghē-ti, *ghe-gheə-ti).
[Pokorny 1. g̑hē‑ 418.]

  1. gable, from Old Norse gafl, gable, from Germanic *gablaz, top of a pitched roof.
  2. Form *kephal‑, dissimilated from *khephal‑. cephalic, cephalo-, -cephalous; autocephalous, encephalo-, enkephalin, hydrocephalus, pachycephalosaur, from Greek kephalē, head.
[Pokorny ghebh-el‑ 423.]

Theoretical base of *ghyem‑, *ghiem‑, winter. Oldest forms *g̑hei‑, *g̑hyem‑, *g̑hiem‑, becoming *ghei‑, *ghyem‑, *ghiem‑ in centum languages.
  1. Form *ghiem‑. hiemal, from Latin hiems, winter.
  2. Suffixed variant form *gheim-ri-no‑. hibernaculum, hibernate, from Latin hībernus, pertaining to winter.
  3. O-grade form *ghiom-.chionodoxa, from Greek khiōn (stem khion‑), snow, from earlier *khiōn,, *khiom‑, with *-n‑ (< final *-m) generalized in oblique stem from nominative singular khiōn (< *ghiōm with lengthened o-grade).
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghim-r̥-yə, "female animal one year (winter) old." chimera, from Greek khimaira, she-goat.
[Pokorny 2. g̑hei‑ 425.]

To call.
    1. yell, from Old English gellan, giellan, to sound, shout;
    2. yelp, from Old English gielpan, to boast, exult;
    3. nightingale, from Old English galan, to sing. a-c all from Germanic *gel‑, *gal‑.
  1. Reduplicated form *ghi-ghl‑. cichlid, from Greek kikhlē, thrush, later also the name for a kind of wrasse (a sea fish that has bright colors and jagged waving fins, reminiscent of the plumage of a bird).
  2. celandine, from Greek khelidwōn, khelidōn, the swallow.
[Pokorny ghel‑ 428.]

To shine; with derivatives referring to colors, bright materials, gold (probably "yellow metal"), and bile or gall. Oldest form *g̑hel‑, becoming *ghel‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include gold, arsenic, melancholy, Hare Krishna, gleam, glimpse, and glide.
  1. Words denoting colors.
    1. Suffixed form *ghel-wo‑. yellow, from Old English geolu, yellow, from Germanic *gelwaz.
    2. Suffixed variant form *ghlō-ro‑. chloro-; chlorite1, from Greek khlōros, green, greenish yellow.
    3. Suffixed variant form *ghlo-wo‑. chloasma, from Greek khloos (< *khlo-wo-s), greenish color.
    4. O-grade form *ghol‑. podzol, from Russian zola, ashes (from their color).
    5. Suffixed form *ghel-i‑. Hare Krishna, Harijan, from Sanskrit hari‑, tawny yellow.
    6. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *ghl̥-wo‑ in Latin fulvus, tawny (with dialectal f‑ as in fel, gall) fulvous; griseofulvin.
  2. Words denoting gold.
    1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghl̥-to‑.
      1. gold, from Old English gold, gold;
      2. gild1, from Old English gyldan, to gild, from Germanic denominative verb *gulthjan;
      3. guilder, gulden, from Middle Dutch gulden, golden;
      4. gowan, from Middle English gollan, yellow flower, possibly from a source akin to Old Norse gullinn, golden. a-d all from Germanic *gultham, gold.
    2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol-to‑. zloty, from Polish złoto, gold.
    3. Suffixed full-grade form *ghel-no‑. arsenic, from Syriac zarnīkā, orpiment, from Middle Iranian *zarnīk‑, from Old Iranian *zarna‑, golden.
  3. Words denoting bile.
    1. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol-no‑. gall1, from Old English gealla, gall, from Germanic *gallōn‑, bile.
    2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol-ā‑. chole-, choler, cholera; acholia, melancholy, from Greek kholē, bile.
    3. Suffixed full-grade form *ghel-n‑. felon2, from Latin fel, bile.
  4. A range of Germanic words (where no preforms are given, the words are late creations).
    1. gleam, from Old English glǣm, bright light, gleam, from Germanic *glaimiz.
    2. glimpse, from Middle English glimsen, to glimpse, from a source akin to Middle High German glimsen, to gleam.
    3. glint, from Middle English glent, a glint, and glenten, to shine, from a source akin to Swedish dialectal glinta, to shine.
    4. glimmer, from Middle English glimeren, to glimmer, from a source akin to Swedish glimra, glimmer.
    5. glitter, from Old Norse glitra, to shine.
    6. glitz, from Old High German glīzan, to sparkle.
    7. glisten, from Old English glisnian, to shine.
    8. glister, from Middle Dutch glinsteren or Middle Low German glisteren, to shine.
    9. glass, glaze, glazier, from Old English glæs, glass, from Germanic *glasam, glass.
    10. glare1, from Middle English glaren, to glitter, stare, from a source akin to Middle Low German glaren, to glisten, from Germanic *glaz‑.
    11. gloss1, from a source perhaps akin to Icelandic glossi, a spark.
    12. glance2, from Old High German glanz, bright.
    13. gleg, from Old Norse glöggr, clear-sighted.
    14. glad1, from Old English glæd, shining, joyful, from Germanic *gladaz.
    15. glee; gleeman, from Old English glēo, sport, merriment, from Germanic *gleujam.
      1. gleed, from Old English glēd, ember;
      2. glogg, from Old Norse glodh, ember. Both a and b from Germanic *glō-di‑.
      1. glow, from Old English glōwan, to glow;
      2. glow, from Old High German gluoen, to glow;
      3. glower, from Middle English gloren, to gleam, stare, probably from a source akin to Norwegian dialectal glora, to gleam, stare;
      4. gloat, from a source perhaps akin to Old Norse glotta, to smile (scornfully). a-d all from Germanic *glō‑.
    16. gloaming, from Old English glōm, twilight, from Germanic *glō-m‑.
    17. Possibly distantly related to this root is Germanic *glīdan, to glide.
      1. glide, from Old English glīdan, to slip, glide;
      2. glissade, from Old French glier, to glide;
      3. glitch, from Old High German glītan, to glide;
      4. glede, from Old English glida, kite (< "gliding, hovering bird"), from derivative Germanic *glidōn‑.
    18. glib, from a source possibly akin to Middle Low German glibberich, slippery.
[Pokorny 1. g̑hel‑ 429.]

To unite, join, fit.
  1. Lengthened o-grade form *ghōdh‑. good, from Old English gōd, good, from Germanic *gōdaz, "fitting, suitable.".
  2. together, from Old English tōgædere, together (, to; see de-), from Germanic *gadurī, "in a body.".
  3. gather, from Old English gad(e)rian, to gather, from Germanic *gadurōn, "to come or bring together.".
[Pokorny ghedh‑ 423.]

Also ghed-.
To seize, take.
Derivatives include get, guess, prison, comprehend, surprise, and prey.
    1. get1, from Old Norse geta, to get;
    2. beget, from Old English beg(i)etan, to get, beget, from Germanic compound *bigetan, to acquire (*bi‑, intensive prefix; see ambhi);
    3. forget, from Old English forg(i)etan, to forget, from Germanic compound *fer-getan, "to lose one's hold," forget (*fer‑, prefix denoting rejection; see per1). a-c all from Germanic *getan.
  1. guess, from Middle English gessen, to guess, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Swedish gissa, to guess, from Germanic *getisōn, "to try to get," aim at.
  2. Basic form *ghend‑. prehensile, prehension, prison, prize2, prize3, pry2; apprehend, apprentice, apprise, comprehend, comprise, emprise, enterprise, entrepreneur, impresario, misprision1, pregnable, reprehend, reprieve, reprisal, reprise, surprise, from Latin prehendere, prēndere, to get hold of, seize, grasp (pre‑, prae‑, before; see per1).
  3. Form *ghed‑. predatory, prey, spree; depredate, osprey, from Latin praeda, booty (< *prai-heda, "something seized before"; prai‑, prae‑, before; see per1).
[Pokorny ghend‑ 437.]

To grasp, enclose; with derivatives meaning "enclosure." Oldest form *g̑her‑, becoming *gher‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include orchard, kindergarten, courteous, choir, and choral.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥-dh‑.
    1. gird1, girt1, from Old English gyrdan, to gird, from Germanic *gurdjan;
    2. girdle, from Old English gyrdel, girdle;
    3. girth, from Old Norse gjördh, girdle, girth.
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghor-to‑ or (in Germanic) *ghor-dho‑, an enclosure.
      1. yard2; orchard, from Old English geard, enclosure, garden, yard;
      2. garth; Asgard, from Old Norse gardhr, enclosure, garden, yard;
      3. kindergarten, from Old High German garto, garden;
      4. garden, jardinière, from Old North French gart, garden;
      5. hangar, from Old French hangard, shelter, possibly from Germanic *haimgardaz (*haimaz, home; see tkei-);
      6. Germanic compound *midja-gardaz (see medhyo-). (i)-(vi) all from Germanic *gardaz.
    1. horticulture, ortolan, from Latin hortus, garden.
  3. Prefixed and suffixed zero-grade form *ko(m)-ghr̥-ti‑ (*ko(m)‑, collective prefix, "together"; see kom). cohort, cortege, court, courteous, courtesan, courtesy, courtier, curtilage, curtsy, from Latin cohors (stem cohort‑), enclosed yard, company of soldiers, multitude.
  4. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *ghor-o‑. carol, choir, choral, chorale, choric, chorister, chorus, hora; choragus, Terpsichore, from Greek khoros, dancing ground (? perhaps originally a special enclosure for dancing), dance, dramatic chorus.
[Pokorny 4. g̑her‑ 442, g̑herdh‑ 444.]

To like, want. Oldest form *g̑her‑, becoming *gher‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *gher-n‑. yearn, from Old English giernan, gyrnan, to strive, desire, yearn, from Germanic *gernjan.
  2. Possibly extended form *ghrē‑.
    1. greedy, from Old English grǣdig, hungry, covetous, greedy, from Germanic *grēdiga‑, hungry, formed from *grēduz, hunger;
    2. catachresis, chrestomathy, from Greek khrēsthai, to lack, want, use, from khrē, it is necessary.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥-to‑. hortative; exhort, from Latin hortārī, to urge on, encourage (< "to cause to strive or desire").
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥-i‑. charisma; Eucharist, from Greek kharis, grace, favor.
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥-yo‑. chervil, from Greek khairein, to rejoice, delight in.
[Pokorny 1. g̑her‑ 440.]

Gut, entrail. Oldest form *g̑herh2, becoming *gherh2 in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *gherə-no‑. yarn, from Old English gearn, yarn, from Germanic *garnō, string.
  2. Suffixed form *gherə-n‑. hernia, from Latin hernia, "protruded viscus," rupture, hernia.
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *ghorə-d‑. chord2, cord, cordon; harpsichord, hexachord, tetrachord, from Greek khordē, gut, string.
  4. O-grade form *ghorə‑. chorion, from Greek khorion, intestinal membrane, afterbirth.
  5. Possible suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥ə-u‑. haruspex, from Latin haruspex, "he who inspects entrails," diviner (-spex,"he who sees"; see spek-), but perhaps borrowed from Etruscan.
[Pokorny 5. g̑her‑ 443.]

Hand. Oldest form *g̑hes‑, becoming *ghes‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *ghes-ōr, stem *ghes-(e)r‑. chiro-; chironomid, chirurgeon, enchiridion, surgeon, surgery, from Greek kheir, hand.
  2. Suffixed form *ghes-to‑. press2, presto; imprest, from Latin praestō, at hand, perhaps from prefixed form *prai-ghes-to‑ (*prai‑, before; see per1).
[Pokorny 1. g̑hesor‑ 447.]

Seen by some as a base for words meaning "thousand." Oldest form *g̑heslo‑, becoming *gheslo‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *ghesl-yo‑. chiliad, kilo-, from Greek khīlioi, thousand.
  2. Compound *sm̥-gheslo‑ (*sm̥‑, one; see sem-1). Hazara, from Old Iranian *hazahram, thousand.
  3. mil1, mile, millenary, millesimal, milli-, milliary, millime, million; milfoil, millefiori glass, millefleur, millennium, millepore, millipede, per mil, from Latin mīlle, thousand, which has been analyzed as *smī‑, "one" + a form *ghslī‑, but is of obscure origin.
[Pokorny g̑héslo‑ 446.]

To pour, pour a libation. Oldest form *g̑heu‑, becoming *gheu‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include gut, funnel, fusion, and refund.1
  1. Extended form *gheud‑.
    1. Zero-grade form *ghud‑.
      1. gut, from Old English guttas, intestines, from Germanic *gut‑;
      2. gyttja, from Swedish gyttja, perhaps from Germanic *gutjōn.
    2. Nasalized zero-grade form *ghu-n-d‑. foison, fondant, fondue, font2, found2, funnel, fuse2, fusile, fusion; affusion, circumfuse, confound, confuse, diffuse, effuse, infuse, perfuse, profuse, refund, refuse1, refuse2, suffuse, transfuse, from Latin fundere, to melt, pour out.
  2. Extended form *gheus‑.
      1. gust1, from Old Norse gustr, a cold blast of wind, from Germanic suffixed form *gustiz;
      2. gush, from Middle English gushen, to gush, perhaps akin to Icelandic gusa, to gush. Both a and b from Germanic zero-grade form *gus‑.
    1. geyser, from Old Norse geysa, to gush, from Germanic suffixed o-grade form *gausjan.
      1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghus-mo‑. chyme; ecchymosis, from Greek khūmos, juice;
      2. suffixed zero-grade form *ghus-lo‑. chyle, from Greek khūlos, juice.
  3. Suffixed form *gheu-ti‑. futile, from Latin fūtilis, "(of a vessel) easily emptied, leaky," hence untrustworthy, useless.
  4. Basic form *gheu‑.
    1. alchemy, parenchyma, from Greek khein (stem form khu‑), to pour.
    2. O-grade form *ghou‑.
      1. choanocyte, from Greek khoanē (< *khowanā), funnel;
      2. oinochoe, from Greek khoē (< *khowā), a pouring.
  5. Suffixed zero-grade from *ghu-trā. chytrid, from Greek khutrā, pot.
[Pokorny g̑heu‑ 447.]

To call, invoke. Oldest form *g̑heu(h2/3)‑, becoming *gheu(h2/3)‑ in centum languages. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghu-to‑, "the invoked," god.
  1. god, from Old English god, god;
  2. giddy, from Old English gydig, gidig, possessed, insane, from Germanic *gud-iga‑, possessed by a god;
  3. götterdämmerung, from Old High German got, god. a-c all from Germanic *gudam, god.
[Pokorny g̑hau‑ 413.]

Stranger, guest, host; properly "someone with whom one has reciprocal duties of hospitality."
  1. Basic form *ghos-ti‑.
      1. guest, from Old Norse gestr, guest;
      2. Gastarbeiter, from Old High German gast, guest. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *gastiz.
    1. host2, hostile, from Latin hostis, enemy (< "stranger").
  2. Compound *ghos-pot‑, *ghos-po(d)‑, "guest-master," one who symbolizes the relationship of reciprocal obligation (*pot‑, master; see poti-). hospice, hospitable, hospital, hospitality, host1, hostage, hostel, hostler, from Latin hospes (stem hospit‑), host, guest, stranger.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghs-en-wo‑. xenia, xeno-, xenon; axenic, euxenite, pyroxene, from Greek xenos, guest, host, stranger.
[Pokorny ghosti-s 453.]

To grow, become green. Contracted from *ghreh1.
  1. O-grade form *ghrō‑. grow, from Old English grōwan, to grow, from Germanic *grō(w)an.
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghrō-n-yo‑. green, from Old English grēne, green, from Germanic *grōnjaz, green.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghrə-so‑. grass, graze1, from Old English græs, grass, from Germanic *grasam, grass.
[Pokorny (ghrē‑) 454.]

To seize, reach.
  1. Zero-grade form *ghr̥bh‑. Satyagraha, from Sanskrit gṛbhṇāti, gṛhṇāti, he seizes.
    1. grasp, from Middle English graspen, to grasp;
    2. grab1, from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German grabben, to seize. Both a and b from parallel (imitative) Germanic creations with base *grab‑, *grap‑.
[Pokorny 1. ghrebh‑ 455.]

To dig, bury, scratch.
  1. O-grade form *ghrobh‑.
      1. grave3, engrave, from Old English grafan, to dig, engrave, scratch, carve;
      2. graben, from Old High German graban, to dig;
      3. gravlax, from Swedish grava, to bury;
      4. gravure, from Old French graver, to engrave. (i)-(iv) all from Germanic *graban.
    1. grave1, from Old English græf, trench, grave, from Germanic *grabam.
  2. grub, from Old English *grybban, to dig, from Germanic *grub(b)jan (with secondary ablaut).
  3. groove, from Middle Dutch groeve, ditch, from Germanic *grōbō.
[Pokorny 2. ghrebh‑ 455.]

To walk, go. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr̥dh-yo‑.
  1. aggress, congress, degression, digress, egress, ingredient, ingress, introgression, plantigrade, progress, regress, retrograde, retrogress, tardigrade, transgress, from Latin gradī (past participle gressus), to walk, go;
  2. grade, gradual, graduate, gree; centigrade, degrade, degree, from Latin gradus (< deverbative *grad-u‑), step, stage, degree, rank.
[Pokorny ghredh‑ 456.]

To rub. Oldest form *g̑hreh1i‑, with variant (metathesized) form *g̑hreih1, whence zero-grade *g̑hrih1, becoming *g̑hrī‑in satem language and *ghrī‑ in centum languages.
  1. grisly, from Old English grislīc, terrifying, from Germanic *gris‑, to frighten (< "to grate on the mind").
  2. grime, from Middle English grime, grime, from a source akin to Middle Dutch grīme, grime, from Germanic *grīm‑, smear.
  3. Extended form *ghrīs‑. chrism, Christ2, christen, Christian; Christmas, cream, Kriss Kringle, from Greek khrīein, to anoint.
[Pokorny ghrēi‑ 457.]

To grind.
  1. grind, from Old English grindan, to grind, from Germanic *grindan.
  2. grist, from Old English grīst, the action of grinding, from Germanic *grinst‑, a grinding.
  3. fraise, frenulum, frenum; refrain1, from Latin frendere, to grind.
  4. Sometimes but improbably regarded as from this root (in variant form *ghrend‑) is Greek khondros, granule, groats, hence cartilage chondro-; hypochondria, mitochondrion.
[Pokorny ghren‑ 459.]

Wild beast. Oldest form *g̑hwer‑, becoming *ghwer‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *ghwer-o‑. feral, ferine, fierce, from Latin ferus, wild.
  2. Compound *ghwero-əkw, "of wild aspect" (*-əkw,"-looking"; see okw-). ferocious, from Latin ferōx (stem ferōc‑), fierce.
  3. Lengthened-grade form *ghwēr‑. treacle; baluchitherium, dinotherium, eutherian, indricotherium, megatherium, theropod, from Greek thēr, wild beast.
[Pokorny g̑hu̯ē̆r‑ 493.]

Shame, also pudenda. Expressive root, found only in Tocharian (in the literal meaning) and Germanic.
  1. wife; hussy, from Old English wīf, woman, from Germanic *wībam, woman (with semantic weakening from the original meaning; for the semantics, compare the histories of pudendum and cunt).
  2. woman, from Old English compound wīf-man(n), "woman-person, wife person," female (as opposed to wæpen-man(n), "weapon-person," male, with clear sexual overtones).
[Not in Pokorny; compare Tocharian B kwīpe and Tocharian A kip, female pudenda.]

To tear apart, cleave.
Derivatives include clever, and hieroglyphic.
  1. Basic form *gleubh‑.
    1. cleave1, from Old English clēofan, to split, cleave, from Germanic *kleuban.
    2. Probably o-grade form *gloubh‑. clever, from Middle English cliver, nimble, skillful, perhaps akin to East Frisian klüfer, klifer, skillful, and Old Norse kleyfr, easy to split, from Germanic *klaubri‑.
  2. Zero-grade form *glubh‑.
      1. clove2, from Old English clufu, clove (of garlic);
      2. kloof, from Middle Dutch clove, a cleft;
      3. clevis, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse klofi, a cleft. a-c all from Germanic *klub‑, a splitting.
    1. cleft, from Old English geclyft, fissure, from Germanic *klufti‑(*klub-ti‑).
    2. glyph, glyptic; anaglyph, hieroglyphic, from Greek gluphein, to carve.
    3. Suffixed zero-grade form *glubh-mā‑. glume, from Latin glūma, husk of grain.
[Pokorny gleubh‑ 401.]

To know. Oldest form *g̑neh3, colored to *g̑noh3, becoming *g̑nō‑ in satem languages and *gnō‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include know, cunning, uncouth, ignore, noble, diagnosis, and narrate.
  1. Variant form *gnē‑, contracted from *gnēə‑. know; knowledge, acknowledge, from Old English cnāwan, to know, from Germanic *knē(w)‑.
  2. Zero-grade form *gn̥ə‑.
    1. can1, con2, cunning, from Old English cunnan, to know, know how to, be able to, from Germanic *kunnan (Old English first and third singular can from Germanic *kann from o-grade *gonə‑);
    2. ken, kenning, from Old English cennan, to declare, and Old Norse kenna, to know, name (in a formal poetic metaphor), from Germanic causative verb *kannjan, to make known;
    3. couth; uncouth, from Old English cūth, known, well-known, usual, excellent, familiar, from Germanic *kunthaz;
    4. kith and kin, from Old English cȳth(the), cȳththu, knowledge, acquaintance, friendship, kinfolk, from Germanic *kunthithō.
  3. Suffixed form *gnō-sko‑. notice, notify, notion, notorious; acquaint, cognition, cognizance, connoisseur, incognito, quaint, recognize, reconnaissance, reconnoiter, from Latin (g)nōscere, cognōscere, to get to know, get acquainted with.
  4. Suffixed form *gnō-ro‑. ignorant, ignore, from Latin ignōrāre, not to know, to disregard (i‑, for in‑, not; see ne).
  5. Suffixed form *gnō-dhli‑. noble, from Latin nōbilis, knowable, known, famous, noble.
  6. Reduplicated and suffixed form *gi-gnō-sko‑. gnome2, gnomon, gnosis, Gnostic; agnosia, diagnosis, noscapine, pathognomonic, physiognomy, prognosis, from Greek gignōskein, to know, think, judge (verbal adjective gnōtos, known), with gnōsis (< *gnō-ti‑), knowledge, inquiry, and gnōmōn, judge, interpreter.
  7. Suffixed zero-grade form *gn̥ə-ro‑. narrate, from Latin narrāre (< *gnarrāre), to tell, relate, from gnārus, knowing, expert.
  8. Suffixed zero-grade form *gn̥ə-ti‑. Zend-Avesta, from Avestan zainti‑, knowledge (remade from *zāti‑).
  9. Traditionally but improbably referred here are:
    1. note; annotate, connote, prothonotary, from Latin nota, a mark, note, sign, cipher, shorthand character;
    2. norm, Norma, normal; abnormal, enormous, from Latin norma, carpenter's square, rule, pattern, precept, possibly from an Etruscan borrowing of Greek gnōmōn, carpenter's square, rule.
[Pokorny 2. g̑en‑ 376.]

Grain. Oldest form *g̑r̥h2-no‑, becoming *gr̥h2-no‑ in centum languages.
    1. corn1, from Old English corn, grain;
    2. kernel, from Old English derivative noun cyrnel, seed, pip;
    3. einkorn, from Old High German korn, grain. a-c all from Germanic *kornam.
  1. garner, garnet1, grain, gram2, granadilla, granary, grange, grani-, granita, granite, granule, grenade, grenadine; filigree, grosgrain, pomegranate, from Latin grānum, grain.
[In Pokorny g̑er‑ 390.]

Also gwem-.
To go, come. Oldest form *gweh2, colored to *gwah2, becoming *gwā‑.
Derivatives include welcome, adventure, souvenir, acrobat, and diabetes.
    1. come, from Old English cuman, to come;
    2. welcome, from Old English wilcuma, a welcome guest, and wilcume, the greeting of welcome, from Germanic compound *wil-kumōn‑, a desirable guest (*wil‑, desirable; see wel-1), from *kumōn‑, he who comes, a guest;
    3. become, from Old English becuman, to become, from Germanic compound *bi-kuman, to arrive, come to be (*bi‑, intensive prefix; see ambhi). a-c all from Germanic *kuman.
  1. Suffixed form *gw(e)m-yo‑. venire, venue; advent, adventitious, adventure, avenue, circumvent, contravene, convene, convenient, convent, conventicle, convention, coven, covenant, event, eventual, intervene, invent, inventory, misadventure, parvenu, prevenient, prevent, provenance, provenience, revenant, revenue, souvenir, subvention, supervene, from Latin venīre, to come.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwm̥-yo‑. base1, basis; abasia, acrobat, adiabatic, amphisbaena, anabaena, anabasis, batophobia, diabase, diabetes, hyperbaton, katabatic, stereobate, stylobate, from Greek bainein, to go, walk, step, with basis (< *gwə-ti‑, suffixed zero-grade form of *gwā‑), a stepping, tread, base, -batos (< *gwə-to‑), going, and -batēs (< *gwə-tā‑), agential suffix, "one that goes or treads, one that is based.".
  3. Suffixed lengthened-grade form gwēm-yo‑. quim, perhaps from Old English gecwēme, pleasant, fitting ("becoming"), from Germanic *-kwǣmja‑. (*ge‑, intensive prefix; see kom).
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *gw(ə)-u‑ in compound *pres-gwu‑ (see per1).
  5. Basic form *gwā‑. bema, from Greek bēma, step, seat, raised platform.
  6. Basic form *gwā‑ or zero-grade form *gwm̥‑ in Sanskrit compound durga‑, difficult to approach (*dus‑, *dur‑, difficult; see dus-). Durga, from Sanskrit Durgā, Durga (short for durgā devī, goddess who is difficult to approach), from durgā, feminine of durga‑.
  7. Reduplicated form *gwe-gwā‑. juggernaut, from Sanskrit jagat, moving, the world, originally present participle of *jagāti (remade as jigāti), he goes.
[Pokorny gā‑ 463.]

To live. Also gweiə- (oldest form *gweih3, with metathesized variant *gwyeh3, colored to *gwyoh3, becoming *gwyō‑).
Derivatives include quick, vivid, vitamin, whiskey, amphibious, microbe, and hygiene.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwi-wo‑, *gwī-wo‑ (< *gwiə-wo‑), living.
      1. quick, quicksilver, from Old English cwic, cwicu, living, alive;
      2. couch grass, quitch grass, from Old English cwice, couch grass (so named from its rapid growth). Both a and b from Germanic *kwi(k)waz.
        1. sempervivum, vivify, viviparous, from Latin vīvus, living, alive;
        2. viper, weever, wyvern, from Latin vīpera, viper, contracted from *vīvipera, "bearing live young" (from the belief that it hatches its eggs inside its body), from feminine of earlier *vīvo-paros (-paros, bearing; see perə-1).
      1. viand, victual, viva, vivacious, vivid; convivial, revive, survive, from Latin denominative vīvere, to live.
    1. azoth, from Middle Persian *zhīwak, alive, from Old Persian *jīvaka‑, extension of jīva‑.
    2. Further suffixed form *gwī-wo-tā‑. viable, vital; vitamin, from Latin vīta, life.
    3. Further suffixed form *gwi-wo-tūt‑. usquebaugh, whiskey, from Old Irish bethu, life.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwiə-o‑. bio-, biota, biotic; aerobe, amphibian, anabiosis, cenobite, dendrobium, microbe, rhizobium, saprobe, symbiosis, from Greek bios, life (> biotē, way of life).
  3. Variant form *gwyō‑ (< *gwyoə‑).
    1. azo-; diazo, hylozoism, from Greek zōē, zoē, life.
    2. Suffixed form *gwyō-yo‑. zodiac, -zoic, zoo-, zoon1, -zoon, from Greek zōon, zōion, living being, animal.
  4. Compound suffixed form *yu-gwiə-es‑ (see aiw-).
  5. Possibly Old English cwifer‑, nimble quiver1.
[Pokorny 3. gei̯‑ 467.]

Also gwel-.
To throw, reach, with further meaning to pierce. Oldest form *gwelh1, with metathesized variant *gwleh1, becoming *gwlē‑.
Derivatives include devil, emblem, metabolism, parliament, problem, symbol, ballet, and kill.1
  1. Words denoting to throw, reach. Variant *gwlē‑, contracted from *gwleə‑.
    1. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwl̥-n-ə‑.
      1. ballista; amphibole, arbalest, astrobleme, bolide, devil, diabolical, embolism, emboly, epiboly, hyperbola, hyperbole, metabolism, palaver, parable, parabola, parley, parliament, parlor, parol, parole, Polari, problem, symbol, from Greek ballein, to throw (with o-grade *bol‑ and variant *blē‑);
      2. ball2, ballad, ballet, bayadere, from Greek ballizein, to dance.
    2. Suffixed o-grade form *gwol(ə)-ā‑. bolometer, from Greek bolē, beam, ray.
    3. Possible suffixed o-grade form *gwol(ə)-sā‑. boule1, abulia, from Greek boulē, determination, will (< "throwing forward of the mind"), council.
    4. Suffixed full-grade form *gwelə-mno‑. belemnite, from Greek belemnon, dart, javelin.
  2. Words denoting to pierce.
    1. Suffixed o-grade form *gwol-eyo‑.
      1. quell, from Old English cwellan, to kill, destroy;
      2. quail2, from Middle Dutch quelen, to be ill, suffer. Both a and b from Germanic *kwaljan.
    2. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwl̥-yo‑. kill1, from Middle English killen, to kill, perhaps from Old English *cyllan, to kill, from Germanic *kuljan.
    3. Full-grade form *gwel‑. belonephobia, from Greek belonē, needle.
[Pokorny 2. gel‑ 471, 1. gel‑ 470.]

  1. Suffixed form *gwen-ā‑.
    1. quean, from Old English cwene, woman, prostitute, wife, from Germanic *kwenōn‑;
    2. banshee, from Old Irish ben, woman;
    3. zenana, from Persian zan, woman.
  2. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *gwēn-i‑. queen, from Old English cwēn, woman, wife, queen, from Germanic *kwēniz.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwn̥-ā‑. gyne, -gyne, gyno-, -gynous, -gyny; gynecocracy, gynecology, gynoecium, from Greek gunē, woman.
[Pokorny gē̆nā 473.]

Heavy. Oldest form *gwerh2.
Derivatives include grave2, grief, aggravate, baritone, guru, brute, and blitzkrieg.
  1. Zero-grade form *gwr̥ə‑.
    1. Suffixed form *gwr̥ə-wi‑. grave2, gravid, gravimeter, gravitate, gravity, grief, grieve; aggravate, aggrieve, from Latin gravis, heavy, weighty.
    2. Suffixed form *gwr̥ə-u‑.
      1. barite, barium, baryon, baryta; baritone, barycenter, barysphere, charivari, from Greek barus, heavy;
      2. guru, from Sanskrit guru‑, heavy, venerable.
    3. Suffixed form *gwr̥ə-es‑. bar2, baro-; centrobaric, isallobar, isobar, from Greek baros, weight.
    4. Possibly *gwrī̆‑ in Greek compound *u(d)-bri‑ (see ud-).
  2. Suffixed extended form *gwrū-to‑. brut, brute, from Latin brūtus, heavy, unwieldy, dull, stupid, brutish.
  3. Suffixed extended form *gwrī-g‑.
    1. brio, from Spanish brio or Provençal briu, vigor, from Celtic *brīg-o‑, strength;
    2. brig, brigade, brigand, brigantine, from Old Italian briga, strife, from Celtic *brīg-ā‑, strife;
    3. blitzkrieg, sitzkrieg, from Old High German krēg, chrēg, stubbornness, from Germanic *krīg‑.
  4. Suffixed full-grade form *gwerə-nā‑, millstone. quern, from Old English cweorn, quern.
[Pokorny 2. ger‑ 476.]

To favor. Oldest form *gwerh2.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwr̥ə-to‑. grace, grateful, gratify, gratis, gratitude, gratuitous, gratuity; agree, congratulate, disgrace, ingrate, ingratiate, maugre, from Latin grātus, pleasing, beloved, agreeable, favorable, thankful, with related suffixed forms *gwr̥ə-ti‑, *gwr̥ə-t-ā‑, *gwr̥ə-t-olo‑.
  2. Probably compound zero-grade form *gwr̥ə-dh(ə)-o‑, "he who makes praises" (*-dh(ə)‑, to do; see dhē-). bard1, from Welsh bardd and Scottish and Irish Gaelic bard, bard, from Celtic bardo‑, bard.
[Pokorny 4. ger(ə)‑ 478.]

To say, speak.
  1. Basic form *gwet‑. bequeath, quoth, from Old English cwethan, to say, speak, from Germanic *kwithan.
  2. Suffixed form *gwet-ti‑. bequest, from Old English -cwis, will, from Germanic *kwessiz.
[Pokorny 2. get‑ 480.]

To ask, pray.
  1. Suffixed form *gwhedh-yo‑. bid, from Old English biddan, to ask, pray, from Germanic *bidjan, to pray, entreat.
  2. bead, from Old English bed(u), gebed, prayer (ge‑, intensive and collective prefix; see kom), from Germanic *bidam, entreaty.
  3. Suffixed form *gwhedh-to‑. infest, manifest, from Latin -festus, probably in īnfestus, hostile (< *n̥-gwhedh-to‑, "inexorable"; *n̥‑, not; see ne) and perhaps in manifestus, caught in the act, red-handed (manus, hand; see man-2).
[Pokorny ghedh‑ 488, 2. bhedh‑ 114.]

To strike, kill.
Derivatives include bane, fence, and offend.
  1. O-grade form *gwhon‑.
    1. bane, from Old English bana, slayer, cause of ruin or destruction;
    2. autobahn, from Middle High German ban, bane, way, road (< "strike" in a technical sense like "swath"). Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *ban-ōn‑.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwhn̥-tyā‑.
    1. gun, from Old Norse gunnr, war;
    2. gonfalon, from Italian gonfalone, standard, from Germanic compound *gund-fanōn‑, "battle flag" (*fanōn‑, flag; see pan-). Both a and b from Germanic *gundjō, war, battle.
  3. Suffixed form *gwhen-do‑.
    1. defend, defense, fence, fend, from Latin dēfendere, to ward off (dē‑, away; see de-);
    2. offend, offense, from Latin offendere, to strike against, be offensive, offend (ob‑, against; see epi).
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwhn̥-tro‑. bezoar, from Persian zahr, poison, from Old Iranian *jathra‑.
  5. Full-grade form *gwhen‑. bonze, kalanchoe, sangha, from Sanskrit hanti, he strikes.
[Pokorny 2. ghen-(ə)‑ 491, bhen‑ 126.]

To heat, warm.
Derivatives include brand, brandy, forceps, and fornicate.
  1. Zero-grade form *gwhr‑.
    1. burn1, from Old English beornan, byrnan (intransitive) and bærnan (transitive), to burn;
    2. brimstone, from late Old English brynstān, "burning mineral," sulfur (stān, stone; see stāi-);
    3. brindled, from Old Norse brenna, to burn. a-c all from Germanic *brennan (intransitive) and brannjan (transitive), formed from *brenw‑ with nasal suffix and analogical vocalism.
    1. brand, from Old English brand, piece of burning wood, sword;
    2. brandy, from Dutch branden, to burn, distill;
    3. brandish, from Old French brand, sword;
    4. brandade, from Old Provençal brand, sword. a-d all from Germanic *brandaz, a burning, a flaming torch, hence also a sword.
  2. Suffixed form *gwher-m(n)o‑. therm, -therm, thermo-, -thermy; hypothermia, lobster thermidor, from Greek thermos, warm, hot, and thermē, heat.
  3. O-grade form *gwhor‑. forceps, forcipate, from Latin forceps, pincers, fire tongs (< "that which holds hot things"; -ceps, agential suffix, "-taker"; see kap-).
  4. Suffixed o-grade form *gwhor-no‑.
    1. Fornax, furnace, hornito, from Latin furnus, fornus, fornāx, oven;
    2. probably Latin fornix, arch, vault (< "vaulted brick oven") fornicate, fornix.
  5. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwhr̥-to‑, heated, likely source of Sanskrit ghṛtam, ghee, clarified butter ghee.
[Pokorny gher‑ 493, bh(e)reu‑ 143.]

Thread, tendon. Oldest full-grade form *gwhyehx, with zero-grade form *gwhihx becoming *gwhī‑.
  1. Full-grade form gwhyeə‑. zij, ultimately from Old Iranian *ǰyā‑, bowstring (attested in Avestan ǰyā‑).
  2. Suffixed form *gwhī-slo‑. ficelle, filament, filar, filaria, file1, fillet, filose, filum; defile2, enfilade, filiform, filigree, filoplume, filovirus, profile, purfle, from Latin fīlum, thread.
[Pokorny gheiə‑ 489.]

To smell, breathe. Oldest form *gwhreh1, becoming *gwhrē.
breath, breathe, from Old English brǣth, odor, exhalation, from Germanic suffixed form *brē-thaz.
[Pokorny ghrē‑ 495.]

To think.
  1. frantic, frenetic, frenzy, -phrenia, phreno-; phrenitis, from Greek phrēn, the mind, also heart, midriff, diaphragm.
  2. Extended zero-grade root form *gwhrn̥-d‑. phrase; holophrastic, metaphrase, paraphrase, periphrasis, from Greek phrazein, to point out, show.
[Pokorny ghren‑ 496.]

Ox, bull, cow. Nominative singular form *gwōu-s.
Derivatives include cow1, beef, bugle1, and butter.
  1. cow1, kine; cowslip, from Old English , , cȳe, cow, from Germanic *kōuz (> *kūz).
    1. beef, bovine, bugle1, from Latin bōs (stem bov‑), ox, bull, cow;
    2. buccinator, from Latin būcina, horn, trumpet, from *bou-kanā‑, "bellower" (*-kanā‑, singer; see kan-).
    1. Boötes, boustrophedon, bucolic, bugloss, bulimia, bumelia, buprestid, butter, butyric, from Greek bous, ox, bull, cow;
    2. buffalo, from Greek boubalos, buffalo, perhaps from bous;
    3. boy, perhaps from Old French buie, fetter, shackle, from Latin bōia, collar used to restrain a criminal (originally made from ox hide), from Greek boeiā, ox hide, from bous.
  2. gayal; guar, Gurkha, kouprey, nilgai, from Sanskrit gauḥ, go‑, cow.
  3. Suffixed form *gwou-no‑. gunny, from Pali goṇa‑, ox.
  4. Suffixed form *gwōu-ro‑. gaur, from Sanskrit gauraḥ, wild ox.
  5. Zero-grade suffixed form *gww-ā‑. hecatomb, from Greek hekatombē, "sacrifice of a hundred oxen" (hekaton, hundred; see dekm̥).
[Pokorny gou‑ 482.]

Pronominal stem.
Derivatives include yonder, identity, and item.
  1. ilk1, from Old English ilca, same, from Germanic *is-līk‑ (*līk‑, like; see līk-).
  2. yon, from Old English geon, that, from Germanic *jaino‑, *jeno‑.
    1. yond, yonder, from Old English geond, as far as, yonder, from Germanic *jend‑;
    2. beyond, from Old English geondan, beyond, from Germanic *jendana‑.
  3. Extended forms *yām, *yāi. yea1, yes, from Old English gēa, affirmative particle, and gēse, yes (see es-), from Germanic *jā, *jai.
  4. yet, from Old English gīet, gīeta still (preform uncertain).
  5. Relative stem *yo‑ plus particle. if, from Old English gif, if, from Germanic *ja-ba.
  6. Basic form *i‑, with neuter *id-em. id, idem, identical, identity; identify, from Latin is, he (neuter id, it), and īdem, same.
  7. Suffixed form *i-tero‑. iterate; reiterate, from Latin iterum, again.
  8. Suffixed and extended form *it(ə)-em. item, from Latin item, thus, also.
  9. Stem *i‑ plus locatival particle *-dha-i. ibidem, from Latin ibīdem, in the same place.
  10. Suffixed variant form *e-tero‑ in compound *ke-e-tero‑ (see ko-).
[Pokorny 3. e‑ 281.]

To like, desire. Oldest form *keh2, colored to *kah2, becoming *kā‑.
  1. Suffixed form *kā-ro‑.
      1. whore, from Old English hōre;
      2. whoredom, from Old Norse compound hōrdōmr (-dōmr,"condition"; see dhē-). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *hōraz (feminine *hōrōn‑), "one who desires," adulterer.
    1. caress, charity, cherish; Mother Carey's chicken, from Latin cārus, dear.
  2. Suffixed form *kā-mo‑. Kama1; Kamasutra, from Sanksrit kāmaḥ, love, desire.
[Pokorny kā‑ 515.]

To fall. Oldest form *k̑ad‑, becoming *kad‑ in centum languages.
cadaver, cadence, cadent, caducous, cascade, case1, casual, casualty, casuist, chance, chute; accident, decay, deciduous, escheat, incident, occasion, occident, recidivism, from Latin cadere, to fall, die.
[Pokorny 1. k̑ad‑ 516.]

To strike. Oldest form *keh2-id‑, colored to *kah2-id‑.
  1. caesura, cement, cestus2, chisel, -cide, scissor; abscise, circumcise, concise, decide, excise2, incise, precise, from Latin caedere, to cut, strike.
  2. Caelum, ceil, sallet, from Latin caelum (? < *caedum), sculptor's chisel.
[Pokorny (s)k(h)ai‑ 917.]

Heat. Extended form *kaid‑.
  1. hot, from Old English hāt, hot, from Germanic *haitaz;
  2. heat, from Old English hǣtu, from Germanic *haitī‑.
[Pokorny kā̆i‑ 519.]

Whole, uninjured, of good omen.
    1. hale1, whole, from Old English hāl, hale, whole;
    2. wholesome, from Old English *hālsum (> Middle English holsom), wholesome;
    3. hail2; wassail, from Old Norse heill, healthy. a-c all from Germanic *hailaz.
  1. health, from Old English hǣlth, health, from Germanic *hailithō.
  2. heal, from Old English hǣlan, to heal, from Germanic *hailjan.
    1. holy; halibut, halidom, holiday, hollyhock, from Old English hālig, holy, sacred;
    2. hallow; Allhallowmas, Halloween, from Old English hālgian, to consecrate, bless, from Germanic derivative verb *hailagōn. Both a and b from Germanic *hailagaz.
[Pokorny kai-lo‑ 520.]

Forest, uncultivated land.
  1. heath, from Old English hǣth, heath, untilled land, from Germanic *haithiz.
    1. heathen, from Old English hǣthen, heathen, "savage" (< "one inhabiting uncultivated land");
    2. hoyden, from Middle Dutch heiden, heathen. Both a and b from Germanic *haithinaz.
[Pokorny kaito‑ 521.]

Also kaka-.
To defecate. Root imitative of glottal closure during defecation.
  1. cucking stool, from Middle English cukken, to defecate, from a source akin to Old Norse *kūka, to defecate.
  2. poppycock, from Latin cacāre, to defecate.
  3. caco-; cacodyl, cacoëthes, cacophonous, cacophony, from Greek kakos, bad.
[Pokorny kakka‑ 521.]

To sing.
  1. hen, from Old English hen(n), hen, from Germanic *han(e)nī.
    1. canorous, cant2, cantabile, cantata, canticle, cantillate, canto, cantor, canzone, chant, chanteuse, chantey, chantry; accent, chanticleer, descant, enchant, incantation, incentive, precentor, recant, from Latin canere, to sing (> cantāre, to sing, frequentative of canere);
    2. suffixed form *kan-ā‑, "singer," in Latin compound *bou-kanā (see gwou-).
  2. oscine, from Latin oscen, a singing bird used in divination (< *obs-cen, "one that sings before the augurs"; ob‑, before; see epi).
  3. Suffixed form *kan-men‑. charm, from Latin carmen, song, poem.
[Pokorny kan‑ 525.]

Also kend-.
To shine.
  1. Suffixed (stative) form *kand-ē‑. candelabrum, candelilla, candent, candescence, candid, candida, candidate, candle, candor; incandesce, from Latin candēre to shine.
  2. incendiary, incense1, incense2; frankincense, from Latin compound incendere, to set fire to, kindle (in‑, in; see en), from transitive *candere, to kindle.
[Pokorny kand‑ 526.]

To grasp.
Derivatives include have, heavy, cable, captive, deceive, capsule, and chassis.
  1. Basic form *kap‑.
    1. heddle, from Old English hefeld, thread used for weaving, heddle (a device which grasps the thread), from Germanic *haf‑.
    2. haft, from Old English hæft, handle, from Germanic *haftjam.
    3. Form *kap-o‑. have; behave, from Old English habban, to have, hold, from Germanic *habai‑, *habēn.
    4. heavy, from Old English hefig, heavy, from Germanic *hafigaz, "containing something," having weight.
    5. haven, from Old English hæfen, a haven, from Germanic *hafnō‑, perhaps "place that holds ships.".
    6. hawk1, from Old English h(e)afoc, hawk, from Germanic *habukaz.
    7. Suffixed form *kap-to‑. echt, from Middle Low German echte, true, legitimate, akin to Old High German ēohaft, according to custom, from ēwa, custom, right (see aiw-) + -haft, having (a characteristic; < "possessed by, seized by"), from -haft, caught, captured, from Germanic *haftam.
    8. Latin combining form -ceps (< *kap-s), "taker" (see gwher-, man-2, per1).
    9. Probably from this root is Germanic *gaf‑, the source of Provençal gafar, to seize gaff1.
  2. Suffixed form *kap-yo‑.
    1. heave, heft, from Old English hebban, to lift, from Germanic *hafjan.
    2. cable, cacciatore, caitiff, capable, capacious, capias, capstan, caption, captious, captivate, captive, captor, capture, catch, cater, chase1, cop2, copper2; accept, anticipate, catchpole, conceive, deceive, except, inception, incipient, intercept, intussusception, municipal, nuncupative, occupy, participate, perceive, precept, receive, recipe, recover, recuperate, susceptible, from Latin capere, to take, seize, catch.
  3. Lengthened-grade variant form *kōp‑.
      1. behoof, from Old English behōf, use, profit, need;
      2. behoove, from Old English behōfian, to have need of. Both a and b from Germanic compound *bi-hōf, "that which binds," requirement, obligation (*bi‑, intensive prefix; see ambhi), from *hōf‑.
    1. copepod, from Greek kōpē, oar, handle.
[Pokorny kap‑ 527.]
Compare ghabh-.

    1. head; behead, forehead, from Old English hēafod, head;
    2. hetman, from Old High German houbit, head. Both a and b from Germanic *haubudam, *haubidam.
  1. bacalao, caddie, cadet, cape2, capital1, capital2, capitate, capitation, capitellum, capitulate, capitulum, capo1, capo2, caprice, captain, cattle, caudillo, chapiter, chapter, chef, chief, chieftain, corporal2; achieve, biceps, decapitate, kerchief, mischief, occiput, precipitate, recapitulate, sinciput, triceps, from Latin caput, head.
[Pokorny kap-ut‑ 529.]

Also ker-.
Derivatives include hard, and cancer.
  1. Variant form *ker‑.
    1. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-tu‑.
      1. hard, hardly, from Old English hard, heard, hard;
      2. -ard, from Germanic *-hart, *-hard, bold, hardy;
      3. standard, from Old French estandard, flag marking a rallying place in battle, from Frankish *hard, hard;
      4. hardy1, from Old French hardir, to make hard. a-d all from Germanic *harduz.
    2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kr̥t-es‑, from earlier full-grade form *kret-es‑. -cracy, from Greek kratos, strength, might, power.
  2. Possible basic form *kar‑ in derivatives referring to things with hard shells.
    1. Possibly Latin carīna, keel of a ship, nutshell careen, carina.
    2. Possibly Greek karuon, nut karyo-; eucaryote, gillyflower, synkaryon.
    3. Reduplicated form *kar-kr-o‑. cancer, canker, carangid, chancre, from dissimilated Latin cancer, crab, cancer, constellation Cancer.
    4. Suffixed form *kar-k-ino‑. carcino-, carcinoma, from Greek karkinos, cancer, crab.
[Pokorny 3. kar‑ 531.]

Gray. Oldest form *k̑as‑, becoming *kas‑ in centum languages.
    1. hare, from Old English hara, hare;
    2. hasenpfeffer, from Old High German haso, rabbit. Both a and b from Germanic *hazōn‑, *hasōn‑.
  1. Suffixed form *kas-no‑. canescent, from Latin cānus, white, gray, grayed hair.
[Pokorny k̑as‑ 533.]

  1. Possibly Greek kata, down cata-.
  2. Suffixed form *kat-olo‑. cadelle, from Latin catulus, young puppy, young of animals ("dropped").
[Pokorny 2. kat‑ 534.]

To hew, strike.
    1. hew, from Old English hēawan, to hew;
    2. haggis, haggle; hacksaw, from Old Norse höggva, to cut;
    3. hoe, from Old French houe, a hoe. a-c all from Germanic *hawwan.
  1. hag2, from a source akin to Old Norse högg, a gap, a cutting blow, from Germanic *hawwō.
  2. hay, from Old English hīeg, hay, cut grass, from Germanic *haujam.
  3. Suffixed form *kau-do‑. incus, from Latin cūdere (< *caudere), to strike, beat.
[Pokorny kāu‑ 535.]

To go, yield.
  1. Lengthened-grade form *kēd‑. cease, cede, cession; abscess, accede, access, ancestor, antecede, concede, decease, exceed, incessant, intercede, precede, predecessor, proceed, recede, retrocede, secede, succeed, from Latin cēdere, to go, withdraw, yield.
  2. Prefixed and suffixed form *ne-ked-ti‑, "(there is) no drawing back" (*ne‑, not; see ne). necessary, from Latin necesse, inevitable, unavoidable.
[In Pokorny sed‑ 884.]

Hook, tooth.
    1. hake, from Old English haca, hook, akin to Old Norse haki, hook;
    2. harquebus, from Middle Dutch hake, hook. Both a and b from Germanic *hakan‑.
    1. hook, from Old English hōc, hook;
    2. hooker1, from Middle Dutch hōk, hoec, hook;
    3. haček; Hakenkreuz, from Old High German hāko, hook. a-c all from Germanic lengthened form *hōka‑.
  1. hatchel, heckle, from Middle Dutch hekel, hatchel, a flax comb with long metal hooklike teeth, from Germanic *hakila‑.
  2. hack1, from Old English -haccian, to hack to pieces as with a hooked instrument, from Germanic *hakkijan.
[Pokorny keg‑ 537.]

To lie; bed, couch; beloved, dear. Oldest form *k̑ei‑, becoming *kei‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include city, and cemetery.
  1. Basic form *kei‑.
    1. Suffixed form *kei-wo‑.
      1. hind3, from Old English hīwan, members of a household, from Germanic *hīwa‑;
      2. hide3, from Old English hīgid, hīd, a measure of land (< "household"), from suffixed Germanic form *hīwidō.
    2. Suffixed form *kei-wi‑. city, civic, civil, from Latin cīvis, citizen (< "member of a household").
    3. Suffixed form *kei-liyo‑. ceilidh, from Old Irish céle, companion.
  2. O-grade form *koi‑.
    1. Suffixed form *koi-nā‑. incunabulum, from Latin cūnae, a cradle.
    2. Suffixed form *koi-m-ā‑. cemetery, from Greek koimān, to put to sleep.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *ki-wo‑. Shiva, from Sanskrit śiva‑, auspicious, dear.
[Pokorny 1. k̑ei‑ 539.]

To set in motion. Oldest form keih2.
Derivatives include resuscitate, and kinetic.
  1. Possibly extended variant o-grade from *koid‑in Germanic *hait‑, to call, summon (but this may be from a separate root *kaid‑).
    1. hight, from Old English hātan, to call, summon, order, from Germanic *haitan.
    2. Suffixed form *koid-ti‑.
      1. hest, from Old English hǣs, a command, bidding;
      2. behest, from Old English compound behǣs, a vow, promise, command (be‑, intensive prefix; see ambhi). Both a and b from Germanic *haissiz, from *hait-ti‑.
  2. Zero-grade form *ki‑.
    1. Suffixed iterative form *kiə-eyo‑. cite; excite, incite, oscitancy, resuscitate, solicitous, from Latin ciēre (past participle citus), with its frequentative citāre, to set in motion, summon.
    2. Suffixed form *kiə-neu‑. kinematics, kinesics, -kinesis, kinetic; bradykinin, cinematograph, hyperkinesia, kinesiology, kinesthesia, telekinesis, from Greek kīnein, to move.
[Pokorny kēi‑ 538.]

Excrement. Oldest form *k̑ekw, becoming *kekw in centum languages. Suffixed o-grade form *kokw-ro‑.
copro-, from Greek kopros, dung.
[Pokorny k̑ek 544.]

To cover, conceal, save. Oldest form *k̑el‑, becoming *kel‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include hell, hole, holster, apocalypse, and eucalyptus.
  1. O-grade form *kol‑.
      1. hell, from Old English hell;
      2. Hel, from Old Norse Hel, the underworld, goddess of death. Both a and b from Germanic *haljō, the underworld (< "concealed place").
      1. hall, from Old English heall, hall;
      2. Valhalla, from Old Norse höll, hall. Both a and b from Germanic *hallō, covered place, hall.
    1. Suffixed form *kol-eyo‑. coleus; coleopteran, coleoptile, coleorhiza, from Greek koleon, koleos, sheath.
  2. Zero-grade form *kl̥‑.
      1. hold2, hull, from Old English hulu, husk, pod (< "that which covers");
      2. hole, from Old English hol, a hollow;
      3. hollow, from Old English holh, hole, hollow;
      4. haugh, from Old English healh, secret place, small hollow. a-d all from Germanic *hul‑.
      1. holster, from Old High German hulft, covering;
      2. housing2, from Medieval Latin hultia, protective covering. Both a and b from suffixed Germanic form *hulftī‑.
    1. Extended form *kl̥ə‑ becoming *klā‑. clandestine, from Latin clam, in secret.
    2. Suffixed variant form *kal-up-yo‑. Calypso1, calyptra; apocalypse, eucalyptus, from Greek kaluptein, to cover, conceal.
  3. Full-grade form *kel‑.
      1. helm2, from Old English helm, protection, covering;
      2. helmet, from Middle English helmet, helmet, from a source akin to Frankish *helm, helmet. Both a and b from Germanic *helmaz, "protective covering.".
    1. occult, from Latin occulere < *ob-kel‑ (past participle occultus), to cover over (ob‑, over; see epi).
    2. Suffixed form *kel-os‑. color, from Latin color, color, hue (< "that which covers").
    3. Suffixed form *kel-nā‑. cell, cella, cellar, cellarer; rathskeller, from Latin cella, storeroom, chamber.
    4. Suffixed form *kel-yo‑. cilium, seel; supercilious, supercilium, from Latin cilium, lower eyelid.
  4. Lengthened-grade form *kēl‑. conceal, from Latin cēlāre, to hide, from suffixed form *kēl-ā‑.
[Pokorny 4. k̑el‑ 553.]

To be prominent; hill.
  1. Zero-grade form *kl̥‑.
    1. hill, from Old English hyll, hill, from suffixed Germanic form *hul-ni‑;
    2. holm, from Old Norse hōlmr, islet in a bay, meadow, from suffixed Germanic form *hul-ma‑.
  2. Suffixed form *kel-d‑. excel, from Latin excellere, to raise up, elevate, also to be eminent (ex‑, up out of; see eghs).
  3. O-grade form *kol‑.
    1. colophon, from Greek kolophōn, summit;
    2. suffixed form *kol(u)men‑. culminate, from Latin culmen, top, summit;
    3. extended and suffixed form *kolumnā‑. colonel, colonnade, colonnette, column, from Latin columna, a projecting object, column.
[Pokorny 1. kel‑ 544.]

Warm. Oldest form *k̑elh1, with metathesized variant *k̑leh1, becoming *k̑lē‑ in satem languages and *klē‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed variant form *klē-wo‑.
    1. lee, from Old English hlēo, hlēow, covering, protection (as from cold);
    2. lukewarm, from Old English -hlēow, warm. Both a and b from Germanic *hlēwaz.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kl̥ə-ē‑.
    1. calenture, chafe, chauffeur, cholent; decalescence, incalescent, nonchalant, recalescence, réchauffé, from Latin calēre, to be warm;
    2. cauldron, caudle, chowder; scald1, from Latin derivative adjective calidus, warm.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *kl̥ə-os‑. caloric, calorie; caloreceptor, calorific, calorimeter, calorimetry, from Latin calor, heat.
[Pokorny 1. k̑el‑ 551.]

To shout. Oldest form *kelh2, with metathesized variant *kleh2, colored to *klah2, becoming *klā‑.
Derivatives include exclaim, haul, calendar, and class.
  1. Variant form *klā‑ (< *klaə‑).
    1. low2, from Old English hlōwan, to roar, low, from Germanic *hlō‑.
    2. Suffixed form *klā-mā‑. claim, clamant, clamor; acclaim, declaim, exclaim, proclaim, reclaim, from Latin clāmāre, to call, cry out.
  2. O-grade form *kolə‑.
    1. keelhaul, from Middle Dutch halen, to haul, pull (? < "to call together, summon");
    2. hale2, haul; halyard, from Old French haler, to haul. Both a and b from Germanic *halōn, to call.
  3. Zero-grade form *kl̥ə‑ (> *kal‑).
    1. Suffixed form *kal-yo‑. conciliate, council; reconcile, from Latin concilium, a meeting, gathering (< "a calling together"; con‑, together; see kom).
    2. Suffixed form *kal-end‑. calendar, calends, from Latin kalendae, the calends, the first day of the month, when it was publicly announced on which days the nones and ides of that month would fall.
    3. Suffixed form *kal-e‑. ecclesia, Paraclete, from Greek kalein (variant klē‑), to call.
    4. Suffixed form *kal-ā‑. intercalate, nomenclator, from Latin calāre, to call, call out.
    5. Suffixed form *kl̥ə-ro‑ or suffixed variant form *klaə-ro‑ contracted to *klā-ro‑. clear, glair; Aufklärung, chiaroscuro, clairvoyant, clarain, declare, éclair, from Latin clārus, bright, clear.
  4. Possibly extended zero-grade form *kl̥d‑, becoming *klad‑ in suffixed form *klad-ti‑. class, from Latin classis, summons, division of citizens for military draft, hence army, fleet, also class in general.
[Pokorny 6. kel‑ 548.]

Fresh, new, young.
  1. Suffixed form *ken-t‑. recent, from Latin recēns, young, fresh, new (re‑, again; see re-).
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kn̥-yo‑. -cene; cainotophobia, Cenozoic, kainite, from Greek kainos, new, fresh.
[Pokorny 3. ken‑ 563.]

To gird, bind. Variant form *keng‑.
cinch, cincture, cingulum; enceinte2, precinct, shingles, succinct, from Latin cingere, to gird.
[Pokorny 1. kenk‑ 565.]

To proclaim, speak solemnly. Oldest form *k̑ens‑, becoming *kens‑ in centum languages. Suffixed form *kens-ē‑.
censor, census; recension, from Latin cēnsēre, to judge, assess, estimate, tax.
[Pokorny k̑ens‑ 566.]

To prick, jab.
  1. center; amniocentesis, dicentra, eccentric, from Greek kentein, to prick.
  2. Suffixed form *kent-to‑. cestus1, from Greek kestos, belt, girdle.
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *kont-o‑. heterokont, from Greek kontos, punting pole, goad.
[Pokorny k̑ent‑ 567.]

Horn, head; with derivatives referring to horned animals, horn-shaped objects, and projecting parts. Oldest form *k̑er‑, becoming *ker‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include horn, unicorn, hornet, reindeer, migraine, cheer, rhinoceros, and cerebrum.
  1. Zero-grade form *kr̥‑. Suffixed form *kr̥-no‑.
      1. horn, hornbeam, from Old English horn, horn;
      2. alpenhorn, althorn, flugelhorn, hornblende, from Old High German horn, horn. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *hurnaz.
  2. Extended o-grade form *koru‑.
    1. corymb, from Greek korumbos, uppermost point (< "head").
    2. coryphaeus, from Greek koruphē, head.
    3. Suffixed form *koru-do‑. corydalis, from Greek korudos, crested lark.
    4. Suffixed form *koru-nā‑. corynebacterium, from Greek korunē, club, mace.
  3. Extended e-grade form *keru‑.
    1. Suffixed form *kerw-o‑, "having horns."
      1. cervid, cervine, serval, from Latin cervus, deer;
      2. cervix, from Latin cervīx, neck.
    2. Suffixed form *keru-do‑.
      1. hart, from Old English heorot, hart, stag;
      2. hartebeest, from Middle Dutch hert, deer, hart. Both a and b from Germanic *herutaz.
  4. Italic and Celtic blend of (I) *kr̥-no‑ and (II) *koru‑ yielding *kor-nu‑. corn2, cornea, corneous, corner, cornet, cornichon, corniculate, cornu; bicornuate, Capricorn, cornification, lamellicorn, longicorn, tricorn, unicorn, from Latin cornū, horn.
  5. Extended zero-grade form *kr̥ə‑.
    1. charivari; cheer, from Greek karē, karā, head.
    2. carotid, from Greek karoun, to stupefy, be stupefied (< "to feel heavy-headed").
    3. carrot, carotene, from Greek karōton, carrot (from its hornlike shape).
  6. Suffixed further extended form *kr̥əs-no‑.
    1. cranium; migraine, olecranon, from Greek krānion, skull, upper part of the head.
    2. hornet, from Old English hyrnet, hornet, from Germanic *hurznuta‑.
  7. E-grade further extended form *kerəs‑.
    1. carat, cerambycid, cerastes, kerato-; ceratopsian, chelicera, cladoceran, keratin, Monoceros, rhinoceros, triceratops, from Greek keras, horn.
    2. sirdar, from Persian sar, head.
    3. Suffixed form *kerəs-ro. cerebellum, cerebrum, saveloy, from Latin cerebrum, brain.
  8. Extended form *krei‑.
    1. reindeer, from Old Norse hreinn, reindeer, from Germanic *hraina‑.
    2. rinderpest, from Old High German hrind, ox, from Germanic *hrinda‑.
    3. Possibly extended form *krī‑. criosphinx, from Greek krīos, ram.
[Pokorny 1. k̑er‑ 574.]

To grow. Oldest form *k̑er‑, becoming *ker‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include cereal, Creole, concrete, and recruit.
  1. Suffixed form *ker-es‑. cereal, Ceres, from Latin Cerēs, goddess of agriculture, especially the growth of grain.
  2. Extended form *krē‑ (< *kreə‑).
    1. Suffixed form *krē-yā‑. create, Creole, cria, griot; procreate, from Latin creāre, to bring forth, create, produce (< "to cause to grow);
    2. suffixed form *krē-sko‑. crescendo, crescent, crew1; accrue, concrescence, concrete, decrease, excrescence, increase, recruit, from Latin crēscere, to grow, increase.
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-wo‑, "growing," adolescent. kore, kouros; Dioscuri, hypocorism, from Greek kouros, koros, boy, son, and korē, girl.
  4. Compound *sm̥-kēro‑, "of one growth" (*sm̥‑, same, one; see sem-1). sincere, from Latin sincērus, pure, clean.
[Pokorny 2. k̑er‑ 577.]

Heat, fire.
  1. Suffixed form *ker-tā‑. hearth, from Old English heorth, hearth, from Germanic *herthō.
  2. Zero-grade form *kr̥‑.
    1. carbon, carbuncle, from Latin carbō, charcoal, ember;
    2. extended form *krem‑. cremate, from Latin cremāre, to burn.
  3. Possibly suffixed and extended form *kerə-mo‑. ceramic, from Greek keramos, potter's clay, earthenware.
  4. Possibly variant extended form *krās‑. crash2, from Russian krasit', to color.
[Pokorny 3. ker(ə)‑ 571.]

Heart. Oldest form *k̑erd‑, becoming *kerd‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *kerd-en‑. heart, from Old English heorte, heart, from Germanic *hertōn‑.
  2. Zero-grade form *kr̥d‑.
    1. cordate, cordial, courage, quarry1; accord, concord, cordiform, discord, misericord, record, from Latin cor (stem cord‑), heart;
    2. suffixed form *kr̥d-yā‑. cardia, cardiac, cardio-; endocardium, epicardium, megalocardia, myocardium, pericardium, from Greek kardiā, heart, stomach, orifice.
  3. Possibly *kred-dhə‑, "to place trust" (an old religious term; *dhə‑, to do, place; see dhē-) credence, credible, credit, credo, credulous, grant; miscreant, recreant, from Latin crēdere, to believe.
[Pokorny (k̑ered‑) 579.]

To mix, confuse, cook. Oldest form *k̑erh2, becoming *kerh2 in centum languages.
  1. Variant form *krā‑ (< *kraə‑).
    1. uproar, from Middle Low German rōr, motion, from Germanic *hrōr‑;
    2. rare2, from Old English hrēr, lightly boiled, half-cooked, possibly from Germanic *hrōr‑ (see a).
  2. Zero-grade form *kr̥ə‑.
    1. Suffixed form *kr̥ə-ti‑. idiosyncrasy; dyscrasia, from Greek krāsis, a mixing;
    2. suffixed form *kr̥ə-ter‑. crater, krater, from Greek krātēr, mixing vessel.
[Pokorny k̑erə‑ 582.]

To gather, pluck, harvest. Variant *karp‑.
  1. harvest, from Old English hærfest, harvest, from Germanic *harbistaz.
  2. carpet; excerpt, scarce, from Latin carpere, to pluck.
  3. -carp, carpel, carpo-, -carpous, from Greek karpos, fruit.
[In Pokorny 4. sker‑ 938.]

To run. Oldest form *k̑ers‑, becoming *kers‑ in centum languages. Zero-grade form *kr̥s‑.
  1. corral, corrida, corrido, corridor, corsair, courante, courier, course, current, cursive, cursor, curule; concourse, concur, decurrent, discourse, excursion, hussar, incur, intercourse, kraal, occur, parkour, percurrent, precursor, recourse, recur, succor, from Latin currere, to run.
  2. Suffixed form *kr̥s-o‑.
    1. car, career, cargo, caricature, cariole, cark, caroche, carry, charge, chariot, charrette; discharge, from Latin carrus, a two-wheeled wagon;
    2. carpenter, from Latin carpentum, a two-wheeled carriage. Both a and b from Gaulish carros, a wagon, cart.
[Pokorny 2. k̑ers‑ 583.]

To cut. Oldest form *k̑es‑, becoming *kes‑ in centum languages. Variant *kas‑.
  1. Suffixed form *kas-tro‑.
    1. castrate, from Latin castrāre, to castrate;
    2. alcazar, castellan, castellated, castle, from Latin castrum, fortified place, camp (perhaps "separated place").
  2. Suffixed form *kas-to‑. caste, chaste; castigate, incest, from Latin castus, chaste, pure (< "cut off from or free of faults").
  3. Suffixed (stative) form *kas-ē‑. caret, from Latin carēre, "to be cut off from," lack.
  4. Extended geminated form *kasso‑. cashier, quash1, cassation, from Latin cassus, empty, void.
[Pokorny k̑es‑ 586.]

To swell; vault, hole. Oldest form *k̑euhx, becoming *keuhx in centum languages.
Derivatives include cave, excavate, and church.
  1. O-grade form *kouə‑.
    1. Basic form *kouə‑ becoming *kaw‑. cava, cave, cavern, cavetto, cavity; concave, excavate, from Latin cavus, hollow.
    2. Suffixed form *kow-ilo‑. -cele2, celiac, -coel, coelom; acoelomate, coelacanth, from Greek koilos, hollow.
    3. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *kōw-o‑. codeine, from Greek kōos, hollow place, cavity.
  2. Zero-grade form *kū‑ (< *kuə‑).
    1. Suffixed shortened form *ku-m-olo. cumulate, cumulus; accumulate, from Latin cumulus, heap, mass.
    2. Basic form *kū‑.
      1. Suffixed form *kū-ro‑, "swollen," strong, powerful. church, kirk, Kyrie; kermis, from Greek kūrios (vocative kūrie), master, lord;
      2. suffixed form *kuw-eyo‑. cyma, cymatium, cyme; cymophane, kymograph, pseudocyesis, from Greek kuein, to swell, and derivative kūma (< *kū-mn̥), "a swelling," wave;
      3. suffixed form *en-kū-yo‑ (*en, in; see en). enceinte1, from Latin inciēns, pregnant.
[Pokorny 1. k̑eu‑ 592.]

To lean. Oldest form *k̑lei‑, becoming *klei‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include decline, climax, climate, and ladder.
  1. Full-grade form *klei‑.
    1. Suffixed form *klei-n‑. decline, incline, recline, from Latin -clīnāre, to lean, bend.
    2. Suffixed form *klei-tro‑. clitellum, from Latin clītellae, packsaddle, from diminutive of *clītra, litter.
    3. Suffixed form *klei-wo‑. acclivity, declivity, proclivity, from Latin clīvus, a slope.
    4. Suffixed form *klei-tor‑, "incline, hill." clitoris, from Greek diminutive kleitoris, clitoris.
  2. Zero grade form *kli‑.
    1. lid, from Old English hlid, cover, from Germanic *hlid‑, "that which bends over," cover.
    2. Suffixed form *kli-n‑. lean1, from Old English hlinian and hleonian, to lean, from Germanic *hlinēn.
    3. Suffixed form *kli-ent‑. client, from Latin cliēns, dependent, follower.
    4. Suffixed form *kli-to‑ in compound *aus-klit-ā‑ (see ous-).
    5. Suffixed form *kli-n-yo‑. -clinal, cline, -cline, -clinic, clino-, clisis, klismos; aclinic line, anaclisis, clinandrium, enclitic, matriclinous, patroclinous, pericline, proclitic, from Greek klīnein, to lean.
    6. Suffixed form *kli-mn̥. climate, from Greek klima, sloping surface of the earth.
    7. Lengthened zero-grade form *klī‑, with lengthening of obscure origin.
      1. Suffixed form *klī-n-ā‑. clinic; diclinous, monoclinous, triclinium, from Greek klīnē, bed;
      2. suffixed form *klī-m‑. climax, from Greek klīmax, ladder.
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *kloi-tr‑. ladder, from Old English hlǣd(d)er, ladder, from Germanic *hlaidri‑.
[Pokorny k̑lei‑ 600.]

To hear. Oldest form *k̑leu‑, becoming *kleu‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include leer, loud, and Hercules.
  1. Extended form *kleus‑. leer, from Old English hlēor, cheek (< "side of the face" < "ear"), from Germanic *hleuza‑.
  2. Zero-grade form *klu‑.
    1. list4, from Old English hlystan, to listen, from Germanic *hlustjan.
    2. listen, from Old English hlysnan, to listen, from Germanic *hlusinōn.
    3. Suffixed lengthened form *klū-to‑.
      1. loud, from Old English hlūd, loud;
      2. ablaut, umlaut, from Old High German hlūt, sound. Both a and b from Germanic *hlūdaz, "heard," loud.
  3. Full-grade form *kleu‑.
    1. Suffixed form *klew-yo‑. Clio, from Greek kleiein, to praise, tell.
    2. Suffixed form *klew-es‑, "fame." Hercules, from Latin Herculēs, from Greek Hēraklēs, Hērakleēs.
    3. Suffixed form *kleu-to‑. sarod, from Middle Persian srōd, sarod, akin to Avestan sraota‑, hearing, sound, from Iranian *srauta‑.
[Pokorny 1. k̑leu‑ 605.]

Stem of demonstrative pronoun meaning "this. " Oldest form *k̑o‑, becoming *ko‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include he1, et cetera, and behind.
  1. Variant form *ki‑.
      1. he1, from Old English , he;
      2. him, from Old English him, him (dative of );
      3. his, from Old English his, his (genitive of );
      4. her, from Old English hire, her (dative and genitive of heo, she);
      5. it, from Old English hit, it (neuter of );
      6. here, from Old English hēr, here;
      7. hence, from Old English heonane, heonon, from here
      8. harass, from Old French hare, call used to set dogs on, from Frankish *hara, over here, hither, alteration (perhaps influenced by *dara, thither) of earlier *hera (compare Old High German *hera, hither). a-h all from Germanic *hi‑.
    1. Suffixed form *ki-tro‑. hither, from Old English hider, hither, from Germanic *hi-thra‑.
    2. Suffixed form *ki-s. cis-, from Latin cis, on this side of.
  2. Variant form *ke‑.
    1. Preposed in *ke-etero‑ (*e-tero‑, a second time, again; see i-). et cetera, from Latin cēterus (neuter plural cētera), the other part, that which remains.
    2. Postposed in Latin -ce (see nu-).
    1. behind, hind1, from Old English behindan, in the rear, behind (bi, at; see ambhi).
    2. hinterland, from Old High German hintar, behind.
    3. hinder1, hindrance, from Old English hindrian, to check, hinder, from Germanic derivative verb *hindrōn, to keep back. 1-3 all from Germanic root *hind‑, behind, attributed by some to this root (but more likely of obscure origin).
[Pokorny 1. ko‑ 609.]

To sharpen, whet. Oldest form *k̑eə3, colored to *k̑oə3, contracted to *k̑ō‑ (becoming *kō‑ in centum languages).
  1. Suffixed extended form *koəi-no‑. hone1, from Old English hān, stone, from Germanic *hainō.
  2. Possibly Greek kōnos, cone, conical object (< "a sharp-pointed object") cone, conic; conifer, conodont.
[Pokorny k̑ē(i)‑ 541.]

To suit, fit, succeed.
hap, happen, happy; hapless, mishap, from Old Norse happ, chance, good luck, from Germanic *hap‑.
[Pokorny kob‑ 610.]

Beside, near, by, with.
Derivatives include enough, handiwork, and country.
    1. enough, gemot, handiwork, witenagemot, yclept, yean, from Old English ge‑, with, also participial, collective, and intensive prefix;
    2. gemütlich; gebrauchsmusik, from Old High German gi‑, participial, collective, and intensive prefix. Both a and b from Germanic *ga‑, together, with (collective and intensive prefix and marker of the past participle).
  1. cum1; cooncan, from Latin cum, co‑, with.
  2. co-, com-, from Archaic Latin com, with (collective and intensive prefix).
  3. British Celtic *kom‑, collective prefix, in compound *kombrogos (see merg-).
  4. Suffixed form *kom-trā‑. con1, contra-, contrary, counter1, counter-, country; encounter, from Latin contrā, against, opposite.
  5. Suffixed form *kom-yo‑. coeno-; cenobite, epicene, Koine, from Greek koinos, common, shared.
  6. Reduced form *ko‑ in compounds (see gher-1, mei-1, smei-).
[Pokorny kom 612.]

To hang. Oldest form *k̑onk‑, becoming *konk‑ in centum languages.
    1. hang, from Old English hōn, to hang;
    2. hanker, from Dutch (dialectal) hankeren, to long for;
    3. hinge, from Middle English henge, hinge, hinge, possibly related (ultimately from the base of Old English hangian, to hang). a-c all from Germanic *hanhan (transitive), hangēn (intransitive), hang.
  1. Suffixed form *konk-it-ā‑. cunctation, from Latin cūnctārī, to delay.
[Pokorny k̑enk‑ 566, k̑onk‑ 614.]

War; also war-band, host, army.
  1. heriot, from Old English here, army.
  2. arrière-ban, from Old French herban, a summoning to military service (ban, proclamation, summons; see bhā-2).
    1. harbor, from Old English herebeorg, lodging;
    2. harbinger, from Old French herberge, lodging. Both a and b from Germanic compound *harja-bergaz, "army hill," hill-fort, later shelter, lodging, army quarters (*bergaz, hill; see bhergh-2).
  3. herald, from Anglo-Norman herald, from Germanic compound *harja-waldaz, "army commander" (*wald‑, rule, power; see wal-).
  4. harness, from Old French harneis, harness, from Germanic compound *harja-nestam, "army provisions" (*nestam, food for a journey; see nes-1).
  5. harry, hurry, from Old English hergian, to ravage, plunder, raid, from Germanic denominative *harjōn.
  6. harangue, from Old Italian aringo, arringa, public square, from Germanic compound *harihring, assembly, "host-ring" (*hringaz, ring; see sker-2). 1-7 all from Germanic *harjaz, army.
[Pokorny koro-s 615.]

Bone. Probably related to ost-.
coast, costa, costard, costrel, cuesta, cutlet; accost, intercostal, sternocostal, from Latin costa, rib, side.
[Pokorny kost‑ 616.]

To hear. Oldest form *h2kous‑.
    1. hear, from Old English hīeran, to hear;
    2. hearken, from Old English he(o)rcnian, to harken. Both a and b from Germanic *hauzjan.
  1. Suffixed form *əkous-yo‑. acoustic, from Greek akouein, to hear.
[Pokorny 1. keu‑ 587.]

To sieve, discriminate, distinguish.
Derivatives include garble, crime, certain, excrement, crisis, and hypocrisy.
  1. Basic form with variant instrumental suffixes.
    1. Suffixed form *krei-tro‑. riddle1, from Old English hridder, hriddel, sieve, from Germanic *hridra‑;
    2. suffixed form *krei-dhro‑. cribriform, garble, from Latin crībrum, sieve.
  2. Suffixed form *krei-men‑.
    1. crime, criminal; recriminate, from Latin crīmen, judgment, crime;
    2. discriminate, from Latin discrīmen, distinction (dis‑, apart).
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *kri-no‑. certain; ascertain, concern, concert, decree, discern, disconcert, discrete, excrement, excrete, incertitude, recrement, secern, secret, secretary, from Latin cernere (past participle crētus), to sift, separate, decide.
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *kri-n-yo‑. crisis, critic, criterion; apocrine, diacritic, eccrine, endocrine, epicritic, exocrine, hematocrit, hypocrisy, paracrine, from Greek krīnein, to separate, decide, judge, and krīnesthai, to explain.
[Pokorny 4. sker‑, Section II. 945.]

Raw flesh. Oldest form *kreuh2.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *krowə-o‑. raw, from Old English hrēaw, raw, from Germanic *hrawaz.
  2. Suffixed form *krewə-s‑. creatine, creodont, creosote, pancreas, from Greek kreas, flesh.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *krū-do‑ (< *kruə-do‑).
    1. crude; ecru, recrudesce, from Latin crūdus, bloody, raw;
    2. cruel, from Latin crūdēlis, cruel.
[Pokorny 1. A. kreu‑ 621.]

To begin to freeze, form a crust.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *krus-to‑.
    1. crouton, crust, crustacean, crustaceous, crustose; encrust, from Latin crusta, crust;
    2. crystal, crystalline, crystallo-; Kristallnacht, from Greek krustallos, ice, crystal.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *krus-es‑. cryo-, from Greek kruos, icy cold, frost.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *krus-mo‑. crymotherapy, from Greek krūmos, icy cold, frost.
[Pokorny 1. B. kreu‑ 621.]

Preposition and preverb meaning "with."
  1. syn-, from Greek sun, xun, together, with.
  2. Basic form *su(n)‑.
    1. soviet, from Old Russian compound sŭvětŭ, assembly;
    2. sputnik, from Russian so‑, s‑, with, together. a and b from Old Russian sŭ(n)‑, with, together.
[In Pokorny 2. sem‑ 902.]

And (enclitic).
sesqui-, ubiquity, from Latin -que, and.
[Pokorny 1. ke 635.]

To pay, atone, compensate. Suffixed o-grade form *kwoi-nā‑.
pain, penal, penalty, pine2, punish; impunity, penology, punitory, repine, subpoena, from Greek poinē, fine, penalty.
[Pokorny 1. kei-(t‑) 636.]

To pile up, build, make. O-grade form *kwoi‑.
  1. cheetah, from Sanskrit kāyaḥ, body;
  2. suffixed form *kwoi-wo‑, making, in denominative verb *kwoiw-eyo‑. poem, poesy, poet, poetic, -poiesis, -poietic; epopee, mythopoeic, onomatopoeia, pharmacopoeia, from Greek poiein, to make, create.
[Pokorny 2. kei‑ 637.]

Also kwyeə-.
To rest, be quiet. Oldest forms *kweih1, *kwyeh1.
Derivatives include while, coy, and requiem.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *kwī-lo‑ (< *kwiə-lo‑).
      1. while, from Old English hwīl, while;
      2. whilom, from Old English hwīlum, sometimes. Both a and b from Germanic *hwīlō.
    1. Possibly Latin tranquillus, tranquil (trāns, across, beyond; see terə-2). tranquil.
  2. Variant form *kwyē‑ (< *kwyeə‑).
    1. Suffixed form *kwyē-t‑. requiem, from Latin quiēs, rest, quiet.
    2. Suffixed form *kwyē-ske‑. coy, quiet, quit; acquiesce, acquit, quitclaim, quite, quitrent, requiescat, from Latin quiēscere (past participle quiētus), to rest.
[Pokorny keiə‑ 638.]

Also kweid-.
White; to shine. Oldest form *k̑weit‑, becoming *kweit‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed variant form *kweid-o‑.
    1. white; Whitsunday, from Old English hwīt, white;
    2. witloof, from Middle Dutch wit, white;
    3. whiting2, from Middle Dutch wijting, whiting;
      1. edelweiss, from Old High German hwīz, wīz, white;
      2. bismuth, from obsolete German Bismuth, Wismuth, perhaps obscurely related to Old High German wīz, white. a-d all from Germanic *hwītaz.
  2. Suffixed o-grade variant form *kwoid-yo‑. wheat, from Old English hwǣte, wheat (from the fine white flour it yields), from Germanic *hwaitjaz.
[Pokorny 3. k̑u̯ei‑ 628.]

Also kwelə-.
To revolve, move around, sojourn, dwell. Oldest forms kwel‑, kwelh2.
Derivatives include colony, cult, wheel, cyclone, pulley, and bucolic.
  1. Basic form *kwel‑. colonia, colony, cult, cultivate, culture, Kultur; incult, inquiline, silvicolous, from Latin colere, to till, cultivate, inhabit (< *kwel-o‑).
  2. Suffixed form *kwel-es‑. telic, telium, telo-, telos; entelechy, talisman, teleology, teleost, teleutospore, from Greek telos, "completion of a cycle," consummation, perfection, end, result.
  3. Suffixed reduplicated form *kw(e)-kwl-o‑, circle.
    1. wheel, from Old English hwēol, hweogol, wheel, from Germanic *hwewlaz.
    2. cycle, cyclo-, cycloid, cyclone, cyclosis; bicycle, encyclical, epicycle, from Greek kuklos, circle, wheel.
    3. chakra, chakram, chukker, from Sanskrit cakram, circle, wheel.
    4. Metathesized form *kwe-lkw-o‑. charkha, from Old Persian *carka‑.
    5. Probably ultimately from *kw(e)-kwl-o‑ is the Old Chinese word for "wheeled vehicle" (reflected by modern Mandarin chē), borrowed from an Indo-European language of Central Asia. jinriksha, from Middle Chinese t(SHOOKR)hia, vehicle, from an Old Chinese word probably from or akin to Tocharian A kukäl and Tocharian B kokale, wagon.
  4. O-grade form *kwol‑.
    1. Suffixed form *kwol-so‑, "that on which the head turns," neck.
        1. hawse, from Old Norse hāls, neck, ship's bow;
        2. ringhals, from Middle Dutch hals, neck;
        3. habergeon, hauberk, from Old French hauberc, hauberk, from Germanic compound *h(w)als-berg‑, "neck-protector," gorget (*bergan, to protect; see kom1). (i)-(iii) all from Germanic *h(w)alsaz.
      1. col, collar, collet, cullet; accolade, decollate1, décolleté, machicolate, machicolation, torticollis, from Latin collum, neck.
    2. Suffixed form *kwol-ā‑. -colous; pratincole, from Latin -cola and incola, inhabitant (in‑, in; see en).
    3. Suffixed form *kwol-o‑.
      1. ancillary, from Latin anculus, "he who bustles about," servant (an‑, short for ambi‑, around, about; see ambhi);
      2. pole1, pulley, from Greek polos, axis of a sphere;
      3. bucolic, from Greek boukolos, cowherd, from -kolos, herdsman.
    4. Suffixed form *kwol-es‑ (probably a blend of o-grade *kwol-o‑ and expected e-grade *kwel-es‑) calash, kolacky, from Slavic kolo, koles‑, wheel.
    5. Suffixed o-grade form *kwol-eno‑ in Old Iranian compound *vahā-carana‑ (see wes-3).
    6. Suffixed zero-grade variant form *kwl̥ə-i‑. palimpsest, palindrome, palingenesis, palinode, from Greek palin, again (< "revolving").
[Pokorny 1. kel‑ 639.]

Far (in space and time).
  1. Lengthened-grade form *kwēl‑. tele-; hypertelorism, from Greek tēle, far off.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kwl̥-ai. paleo-, from Greek palai, long ago.
[Pokorny 2. kel‑ 640.]

Holy. Oldest form *k̑wen‑, becoming *kwen‑ in centum languages.
Suffixed zero-grade form *kwn̥-s-lo‑. housel, from Old English hūsl, hūsel, sacrifice, Eucharist, from Germanic *hunslam.
[Pokorny *k̑u̯en‑ 630.]

To suffer.
  1. Suffixed form *kwenth-es‑. nepenthe, from Greek penthos, grief.
  2. Zero-grade form *kwn̥th‑. pathetic, pathic, patho-, pathos, -pathy; apathy, pathognomonic, sympathy, from Greek pathos, suffering, passion, emotion, feelings.
[Pokorny kenth‑ 641.]

To make.
  1. namaskar, Prakrit, puggaree, Sanskrit, from Sanskrit karoti, he makes.
  2. Suffixed form *kwer-ōr with dissimilated form *kwel-ōr. peloria, from Greek pelōr, monster (perhaps "that which does harm").
  3. Suffixed form *kwer-əs‑. tera-, terato-, from Greek teras, monster.
  4. Suffixed form *kwer-mn̥. karma, from Sanskrit karma, act, deed.
  5. Suffixed form *kwer-o‑. lascar, from Middle Persian laškar, army, perhaps from Old Iranian *raxša-kara‑ ("furnishing protection"; *raxša‑, protection).
  6. Suffixed form *kwr̥-tu‑. Cruithne, from Old Irish Cruithne, the Picts, from Cruithen, a Pict, from *kwriteno‑, member of a tribe inhabiting Britian, Pict, ultimately derived from *kwr̥tu‑, shape, form (perhaps in reference to the designs the Picts tattooed or painted on their bodies).
[Pokorny 1. ker‑ 641.]

To pant, wheeze. Oldest form *k̑wes‑, becoming *kwes‑ in centum languages.
  1. wheeze, from Old Norse hvæsa, to hiss, from Germanic *hwēsjan.
  2. quarrel1, querulous, from Latin querī, to complain.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *kus-ti‑. cyst, cysto-, from Greek kustis, bladder, bag (< "bellows").
[Pokorny k̑u̯es‑ 631.]

To shake. Contracted from *kweə1t‑. Zero-grade form *kwət‑, becoming *kwat‑.
  1. cascara buckthorn, cask, scutch, squash2; concuss, discuss, percuss, rescue, soukous, succussion, from Latin quatere (past participle quassus, in composition -cussus), to shake, strike;
  2. pasta, paste1, pastel, pastiche, pastis, pastry, pâté, patisserie, patty, from Greek passein, to sprinkle.
[Pokorny ku̯ēt‑ 632.]

Derivatives include four, squad, quarantine, and farthing.
  1. O-grade form *kwetwor‑.
      1. four, from Old English fēower, four;
      2. forty, from Old English fēowertig, forty;
      3. fourteen; fortnight, from Old English fēowertēne, fourteen (-tēne, ten; see dekm̥). a-c all from Germanic *fe(d)wor‑, probably from *kwetwor‑.
    1. quatrain; cater-cornered, quattrocento, from Latin quattuor, four.
    2. charpoy, czardas, from Old Iranian cathwārō, four.
  2. Multiplicatives *kweturs, *kwetrus, and combining forms *kwetur‑, *kwetru‑.
    1. cahier, carillon, carnet, casern, quaternary, quaternion, quire1, from Latin quater, four times.
    2. cadre, quadrate, quadrille1, quarrel2, quarry2; escadrille, squad, square, trocar, from Latin quadrum, square.
    3. quadri-, from Latin quadri‑, four.
    4. quadrant, from Latin quadrāns, a fourth part.
    5. quarantine, from Latin quadrāgintā, forty (-gintā, ten times; see dekm̥).
    6. quadricentenary, from Latin quadri(n)gentī, four hundred.
    7. Variant form *kwet(w)r̥‑.
      1. tetra-, from Greek tetra‑, four;
      2. tessera; diatessaron, from Greek tessares, tettares, four;
      3. tetrad, from Greek tetras, group of four;
      4. zero-grade form *kwt(w)r̥‑. trapezium, from Greek tra‑, four.
  3. Ordinal adjective *kwetur-to‑.
      1. fourth, from Old English fēortha, fēowertha, fourth;
      2. firkin, from Middle Dutch veerde, fourth;
      3. farthing, from Old English fēorthing, fēorthung, fourth part of a penny. a-c all from Germanic *fe(d)worthōn‑.
    1. quadrille2, quadroon, quart, quartan, quarter, quarto; écarté, from Latin quārtus, fourth, quarter.
[Pokorny ketu̯er‑ 642.]

Also kwi-.
Stem of relative and interrogative pronouns.
Derivatives include who, whether, either, quorum, quip, and quality.
    1. who, whose, whom, from Old English hwā, hwæs, hwǣm, who, whose, whom, from Germanic personal pronouns *hwas, *hwasa, *hwam;
    2. what, from Old English hwæt, what, from Germanic pronoun *hwat;
    3. why, from Old English hwȳ, why, from Germanic adverb *hwī;
    4. which, from Old English hwilc, hwelc, which, from Germanic relative pronoun *hwa-līk‑ (*līk‑, body, form; see līk-);
    5. how, from Old English , how, from Germanic adverb *hwō;
      1. when, from Old English hwenne, hwanne, when;
      2. whence, from Old English hwanon, whence. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic adverb *hwan‑.
    6. whither, from Old English hwider, whither, from Germanic adverb *hwithrē;
    7. where, from Old English hwǣr, where, from Germanic adverb *hwar‑. a-h all from Germanic *hwa‑, *hwi‑.
    1. whether; neither, from Old English hwæther, hwether, which of two, whether;
    2. either, from Old English ǣghwæther, ǣther, either, from Germanic phrase *aiwo gihwatharaz, "ever each of two" (*aiwo, *aiwi, ever, and *gi‑, from *ga‑, collective prefix; see aiw- and kom). Both a and b from Germanic *hwatharaz.
  1. qua, quibble, quorum, from Latin quī, who.
  2. hidalgo, quiddity, quidnunc, quip; kickshaw, from Latin quid, what, something.
  3. quasi, from Latin quasi, as if (< quam + , if; see swo-), from quam, as, than, how.
  4. quodlibet, from Latin quod, what.
  5. Suffixed form *kwo-ti.
    1. quote, quotidian, quotient; aliquot, from Latin quot, how many;
    2. further suffixed form *kwo-ty-o‑. posology, from Greek posos, how much.
  6. quondam, from Latin quom, when.
  7. cooncan, from Latin quem, whom.
  8. quantity, from Latin quantus, how great.
  9. quality; kickshaw, from Latin quālis, of what kind.
  10. cue2, from Latin quandō, when (from *kwām + -dō, to, til; see de-).
  11. neuter, from Latin uter, either of two, ultimately from *kwo-tero‑ (becoming -cuter in such compounds as necuter, neither, from which uter was abstracted out by false segmentation).
  12. ubiquity, from Latin ubi, where, ultimately from locative case *kwo-bhi (becoming -cubi in such compounds as alicubi, somewhere, from which ubi was abstracted out by false segmentation, perhaps under the influence of ibi, there).
  13. cheese3, from Old Persian *ciš-ciy, something ( < *kwid-kwid).
[Pokorny ko‑ 644.]

Dog. Oldest form *k̑won‑, becoming *kwon‑ in centum languages.
  1. cynic; cynosure, Procyon, quinsy, from Greek kuōn, dog.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kwn̥-to‑.
    1. hound, from Old English hund, dog;
    2. dachshund, from Old High German hunt, dog;
    3. keeshond, from Middle Dutch hond, dog. a-c all from Germanic *hundaz.
  3. Nominative form *kwō. corgi, from Welsh ci, dog.
  4. Variant *kan-i‑. canaille, canary, canicular, canine, chenille, kennel1, from Latin canis, dog.
[Pokorny k̑u̯on‑ 632.]

Body, form, appearance. Probably a verbal root meaning "to appear."
  1. Suffixed form *kwrep-es‑. midriff, from Old English hrif, belly from Germanic *hrefiz‑.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kwr̥p-es‑. corporal1, corporal3, corporate, corporeal, corposant, corps, corpse, corpulence, corpus, corpuscle, corsage, corse, corset; leprechaun, from Latin corpus, body, substance.
[Pokorny 1. krep‑ 620.]

Rhyme word to *wr̥mi‑, worm (see wer-2). carmine, crimson, kermes, from Arabic qirmiz, kermes, borrowed from Sanskrit compound kṛmi-ja‑, "(red dye) produced by worms" (-ja‑, produced; see genə-), from kṛmi‑, worm.
[Pokorny kr̥mi‑ 649.]

Salmon. Suffixed form *laks-o‑.
  1. lox, from Old High German lahs, salmon;
  2. gravlax, from Swedish lax, salmon. Both a and b from Germanic *lahsaz.
[In Pokorny lak̑‑ 653.]

To be eager, wanton, or unruly.
    1. lust, from Old English lust, lust;
    2. wanderlust, from Old High German lust, desire;
    3. list5, from Old English lystan, to please, satisfy a desire, from Germanic denominative verb *lustjan. a-c all from suffixed Germanic zero-grade form *lustuz.
  1. Suffixed form *las-ko‑. lascivious, from Latin lascīvus, wanton, lustful.
[Pokorny las‑ 654.]

Gain, profit. Oldest form *leh2u‑, colored to *lah2u‑.
  1. Suffixed form *lau-no‑. guerdon, from Old High German lōn, reward from Germanic *launam.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *lu-tlo‑. lucrative, lucre, from Latin lucrum, gain, profit.
[Pokorny lāu‑ 655.]

To let go, slacken. Contracted from *leə1.
  1. Extended form *lēd‑.
      1. let1, from Old English lǣtan, to allow, leave undone, from Germanic *lētan;
      2. liege; allegiance, from Late Latin laetus, semifree colonist, from Germanic derivative *lēthigaz, freed.
    1. Zero-grade form *ləd‑.
      1. late, latter, last1, from Old English læt, late, with its comparative lætra, latter, and its superlative latost, last, from Germanic *lataz;
      2. let2, from Old English lettan, to hinder, impede (< "to make late"), from Germanic *latjan;
      3. suffixed form *ləd-to‑. lassitude; alas, from Latin lassus, tired, weary.
  2. Suffixed basic form *lē-ni‑. lenient, lenis, lenitive, lenity, from Latin lēnis, soft, gentle.
[Pokorny 3. lē(i)‑ 666.]

To lick; lip.
  1. lip, from Old English lippa, lip, from Germanic *lep‑.
  2. Variant form *lab‑.
    1. Suffixed form *lab-yo‑. labial, labium, from Latin labium, lip;
    2. suffixed form *lab-ro‑. labellum, labret, labrum, from Latin labrum, lip.
[Pokorny lē̆b‑ 655.]

To collect; with derivatives meaning "to speak. " Oldest form *leg̑‑, becoming *leg‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include leech1, lecture, legend, intelligent, sacrilege, loyal, and logic.
  1. Perhaps Germanic *lēkjaz, enchanter, one who speaks magic words. leech1, from Old English lǣce, physician.
  2. lectern, lection, lecture, legend, legible, legion, lesson; coil1, collect1, diligent, elect, florilegium, intelligent, neglect, prelect, sacrilege, select, sortilege, from Latin legere, to gather, choose, pluck, read.
  3. lexicon, logion, -logue, -logy; alexia, analects, anthology, catalog, dialect, dialogue, dyslexia, eclectic, eclogite, eclogue, horologe, lectotype, prolegomenon, from Greek legein, to gather, speak, with o-grade derivative logos, a gathering, speech (See also 6 below for derivatives independently built to logos).
  4. Suffixed form *leg-no‑. ligneous, ligni-, from Latin lignum, wood, firewood (< "that which is gathered").
  5. Possibly lengthened-grade form *lēg‑.
    1. legal, legist, legitimate, lex, loyal; legislator, privilege, from Latin lēx, law (? < "collection of rules");
    2. legacy, legate; colleague, collegial, delegate, relegate, from Latin denominative lēgāre, to depute, commission, charge (< "to engage by contract"). (It is also possible, but uncertain, that Latin lēx comes, like English law from a form meaning "that which is set or laid down," from legh-).
  6. Suffixed o-grade form *log-o‑. logic, logistic, logo-, Logos, -logy; analogous, apologue, apology, Decalogue, epilogue, homologous, logarithm, paralogism, prologue, syllogism, from Greek logos, speech, word, reason.
[Pokorny leg̑‑ 658.]

To lie, lay.
Derivatives include ledge, lair, beleaguer, lees, law, and fellow.
  1. Suffixed form *legh-yo‑.
    1. lie1, from Old English licgan, to lie, from Germanic *ligjan;
      1. lay1, ledge, ledger, from Old English lecgan, to lay;
      2. belay, from Old English belecgan, to cover, surround (be‑, over; see ambhi). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *lagjan.
  2. Suffixed form *legh-ro‑.
    1. lair, from Old English leger, lair;
    2. leaguer1; beleaguer, from Middle Dutch leger, lair, camp;
    3. laager, lager; Lagerstätte, stalag, from Old High German legar, bed, lair. a-c all from Germanic *legraz.
  3. lees, from Medieval Latin lia, sediment, from Celtic *leg-yā‑.
  4. Lengthened-grade form *lēgh‑. low1, from Old Norse lāgr, low, from Germanic *lēgaz, "lying flat," low.
  5. Suffixed form *legh-to‑. coverlet, litter; wagon-lit, from Latin lectus, bed.
  6. Suffixed o-grade form *logh-o‑.
    1. law; bylaw, Danelaw, from Old Norse *lagu, lag‑, law, "that which is set down";
    2. fellow, from Old Norse lag, a laying down;
    3. outlaw, from Old Norse lög, law;
    4. anlage, vorlage, from Old High German lāga, act of laying. a-d all from Germanic *lagam.
  7. lagan, from Old Norse lögn, dragnet (< "that which is laid down"), from Germanic *lag-īnō‑.
  8. Suffixed o-grade form *logh-o‑. lochia, from Greek lokhos, childbirth, place for lying in wait.
[Pokorny legh‑ 658, 2. lēg̑h‑ 660.]

Light, having little weight.
Derivatives include levity, carnival, elevate, leprechaun, and lung.
  1. Suffixed form *legwh-t‑.
    1. light2, from Old English līht, lēoht, light;
    2. lighter2, from Old English līhtan, to lighten. Both a and b from Germanic *līht(j)az.
  2. Suffixed form *legwh-wi‑. leaven, lever, levity; alevin, alleviate, carnival, elevate, legerdemain, mezzo-relievo, relevant, relieve, from Latin levis, light, with its derivative levāre, to lighten, raise.
  3. Variant form *lagwh‑. leprechaun, from Old Irish lū‑, small.
  4. Nasalized form *l(e)ngwh‑. lung, from Old English lungen, lungs (from their lightness), from Germanic *lung‑.
  5. Latin oblīvīscī, to forget, attributed by some to this root, is more likely from lei-.
[Pokorny legh‑ 660.]

Also slei-.
Derivatives include slime, slick, and oblivion.
    1. slime, from Old English slīm, slime;
    2. slippery, from Old English slipor, slippery;
    3. slick, from Old English *slice, smooth, and -slīcian, to make smooth;
    4. lime3, from Old English līm, cement, birdlime;
    5. loam, from Old English lām, loam;
    6. slight, from Middle English slight, slender, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse slēttr, smooth, sleek;
    7. slip1, from Middle English slippen, to slip, probably from a source akin to Middle Dutch and Middle Low German slippen, to slip, slip away;
    8. schlep, from Middle Low German slēpen, to drag. a-h all from Germanic *slī̆‑ with various extensions.
  1. Suffixed form *lei-mo‑. limacine, limicoline, from Latin līmus, slime.
  2. Suffixed form *lei-w‑. oblivion, oubliette, from Latin oblīvīscī, to forget (< "to wipe, let slip from the mind"; ob‑, away; see epi).
  3. Suffixed form *lei-wo‑. leiomyoma, from Greek leios, smooth.
  4. Extended form *(s)leiə‑ (oldest form *(s)leihx), with metathesis *(s)leə(i)‑.
    1. Zero-grade form with nasal infix *li-n-ə‑. liniment, from Latin linere (perfect lēvī), to anoint;
    2. suffixed zero-grade form *lī‑ (< *liə‑) litotes, from Greek lītos, plain, simple;
    3. suffixed metathesized form *leə-wo‑, whence *lē-wo‑. levigate, from Latin lēvis, smooth.
[Pokorny 3. lei‑ 662.]

To play, jest. Suffixed o-grade form *loid-o‑.
ludic, ludicrous; allude, collude, delude, elude, illusion, interlude, prelude, prolusion, from Latin lūdus, game, play, and lūdere, to play (but both words may possibly be from Etruscan).
[Pokorny leid‑ 666.]

To bind. Oldest form *leig̑‑, becoming *leig‑ in centum languages.
  1. leech2, from Middle Low German līk, leech line, from Germanic *līk‑.
  2. Suffixed agent noun *l(e)ig-tor‑. lictor, from Latin lictor, lictor.
  3. Zero-grade form *lig-ā‑. league1, legato, liable, liaison, liana, lien, ligament, ligase, ligate, ligature; alloy, ally, colligate, furl, oblige, rally1, religion, rely, from Latin ligāre, to bind.
[Pokorny 4. leig‑ 668.]

To lick. Oldest form *leig̑h‑, becoming *leigh‑ in centum languages.
  1. electuary, lekvar, lichen, from Greek leikhein, to lick.
  2. Zero-grade form *ligh‑.
    1. lick, from Old English liccian, to lick;
    2. lecher, from Old French lechier, to live in debauchery. Both a and b from Germanic *likkōn.
  3. Nasalized zero-grade form *li-n-gh‑. anilingus, cunnilingus, from Latin lingere, to lick.
[Pokorny leig̑h‑ 668.]

To leave.
Derivatives include eclipse, loan, and derelict.
  1. Basic form *leikw. eclipse, ellipsis, from Greek leipein, to leave.
  2. O-grade form *loikw. loan, from Old Norse lān, loan, from Germanic *laihwniz.
  3. Zero-grade form *likw.
    1. Suffixed zero-grade form *likw-o‑. lipogram, from Greek lipo‑, lacking.
      1. Germanic compound *ain-lif‑ (see oi-no-);
      2. Germanic compound *twa-lif‑ (see dwo-). Both a and b from Germanic *-lif‑, left.
  4. Nasalized zero-grade form *li-n-kw. delinquent, derelict, relic, relinquish, from Latin linquere, to leave.
[Pokorny leik 669.]

To stick, adhere; fat.
Derivatives include life, and liver.1
  1. life, lively, from Old English līf, life (< "continuance"), from Germanic *lībam.
    1. live1, from Old English lifian, libban, to live;
    2. lebensraum, from Old High German lebēn, to live. Both a and b from Germanic *libēn.
    1. leave1, from Old English lǣfan, to leave, have remaining;
    2. delay, relay, from Old French laier, to leave, from Frankish *laibjan. Both a and b from o-grade Germanic causative *-laibjan.
  2. liver1, from Old English lifer, liver (formerly believed to be the blood-producing organ), from Germanic *librō.
  3. Zero-grade form *lip‑. lipo-, from Greek lipos, fat.
  4. Variant form *əleibh‑. aliphatic; synalepha, from Greek aleiphein, to anoint with oil.
[Pokorny 1. leip‑ 670.]

Track, furrow.
  1. O-grade form *lois‑.
    1. last3, from Old English lāst, lǣst, sole, footprint, from Germanic *laist‑;
    2. last2, from Old English lǣstan, to continue, from Germanic *laistjan, "to follow a track";
    3. suffixed form *lois-ā‑. lore1, from Old English lār, learning, from Germanic *laizō.
  2. learn, from Old English leornian, to learn, from Germanic zero-grade form *liznōn, "to follow a course (of study).".
  3. Suffixed full-grade form *leis-ā‑. delirium, from Latin līra, a furrow.
[Pokorny leis‑ 671.]

least, less, from Old English comparative lǣs, lǣssa and superlative lǣst, lǣrest, from Germanic comparative *lais-izō and superlative *lais-ista‑.
[In Pokorny 2. lei‑ 661.]

To go forth, die.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *loit-eyo‑.
    1. lead1, from Old English lǣdan, to lead;
    2. leitmotif, from Old High German leitan, to lead. Both a and b from Germanic *laidjan.
  2. Suffixed variant o-grade form *loit-ā‑. load, lode; livelihood, from Old English lād, course, way, from Germanic *laidō.
[Pokorny leit(h)‑ 672.]

Open land.
  1. land; island, from Old English land, land;
  2. bilander, landscape, uitlander, from Middle Dutch land, land;
  3. auslander, geländesprung, hinterland, landsleit, landsman2, from Old High German lant, land;
  4. landgrave, landgravine, from Middle Low German lant, country;
  5. landrace2, Landsmål, from Old Norse land, land;
  6. lawn1, from Old French launde, heath, pasture. a-e all from Germanic *landam; f from Germanic, or from Celtic *landā‑.
[Pokorny 3. lendh‑ 675.]

To loosen, divide, cut apart.
Derivatives include forlorn, analysis, and solve.
  1. Extended Germanic root *leus‑.
      1. lorn, losel, from Old English -lēosan, to lose;
        1. forlorn, from Old English forlēosan, to forfeit, lose;
        2. forlorn hope, from Dutch verliezen (past participle verloren), to lose. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *fer-leusan, *far-leusan (*fer‑, *far‑, prefix denoting rejection or exclusion; see per1). Both a and b from Germanic *leusan, with Old English and Dutch past participle loren from Germanic *luzana‑, from Indo-European suffixed zero-grade form *lus-ono‑.
      1. leasing, -less, from Old English lēas, "loose," free from, without, untrue, lacking;
      2. lose, loss, from Old English los, loss;
      3. loose, from Old Norse lauss, louss, loose;
      4. loess, from German dialectal lösch, loose. a-d all from Germanic *lausaz.
    1. leister, from Old Norse ljōsta, to strike, perhaps from Germanic *leustan.
  2. Basic form *leu‑.
    1. lag2, probably from a source akin to Swedish lagg, barrel stave (< "split piece of wood"), from Germanic *lawwō.
    2. Zero-grade form *lu‑.
      1. lyo-, lysis, lyso-, -lyte, lytic, -lytic; analysis, catalysis, dialysis, lyase, palsy, paralysis, tachylyte, from Greek lūein, to loosen, release, untie;
      2. lues, from Latin luēs, plague, pestilence (< "dissolution, putrefaction");
      3. prefixed form *se-lu‑ (se‑, apart; see s(w)e-). soluble, solute, solve; absolute, absolve, assoil, consolute, dissolve, resolute, resolve, from Latin solvere, to loosen, untie.
[Pokorny 2. leu‑ 681.]

To care, desire; love.
Derivatives include livelong, belief, and libido.
  1. Suffixed form *leubh-o‑. lief; leman, livelong, from Old English lēof, dear, beloved, from Germanic *leubaz.
  2. O-grade form *loubh‑.
      1. leave2, from Old English lēaf, permission (< "pleasure, approval");
      2. furlough, from Middle Dutch verlof, leave, permission (ver‑, intensive prefix, from Germanic *fer‑, see per1);
      3. belief, from Old English gelēafa, belief, faith, from Germanic *galaubō (*ga‑, intensive prefix; see kom). a-c all from Germanic *laubō.
    1. believe, from Old English gelēfan, belēfan, to believe, trust (be‑, about; see ambhi), from Germanic *galaubjan, "to hold dear," esteem, trust (*ga‑, intensive prefix; see kom).
  3. Zero-grade form *lubh‑.
    1. Suffixed form *lubh-ā‑. love, from Old English lufu, love, from Germanic *lubō.
    2. Suffixed (stative) form *lubh-ē‑. quodlibet, from Latin libēre, to be dear, be pleasing.
    3. libido, from Latin libīdō, pleasure, desire.
[Pokorny leubh‑ 683.]

To mount up, grow. Oldest form *h1leudh‑.
  1. Basic form *leudh‑. landsleit, from Old High German liut, person, people, from Germanic *liud-i‑.
  2. Suffixed form *leudh-ero‑. liberal, liberate, libero, libertine, liberty, livery; deliver, from Latin līber, free (the precise semantic development is obscure).
[Pokorny 1. leudh‑ 684.]

To wash. Oldest form *leu(h3)‑.
  1. Suffixed form *lou-kā‑. lye, from Old English lēag, lye, from Germanic *laugō.
  2. Suffixed form *lou-tro‑.
    1. lather, from Old English lēthran, līthran, to lather;
    2. lutefisk, from Old Norse laudhr, soap, foam.
  3. Variant form *law‑.
    1. loment, lotion; ablution, alluvion, colluvium, deluge, dilute, eluent, elute, eluvium, from Latin lavere, to wash (in compounds, -luere);
    2. form *law-ā‑. launder, lavabo, lavage, lavatory, lave, lavish, from Latin lavāre, to wash;
    3. latrine, from Latin lavātrīna, lātrīna, a bath, privy.
  4. O-grade form *lou‑. pyrolusite, from Greek louein, to wash.
[Pokorny lou‑ 692.]

To tell a lie.
    1. warlock, from Old English lēogan, to lie;
    2. belie, from Old English belēogan, to deceive (be‑, about; see ambhi). Both a and b from Germanic *leugan.
  1. lie2, from Old English lyge, a lie, falsehood, from Germanic *lugiz.
[Pokorny 1. leugh‑ 686.]

Light, brightness.
Derivatives include light1, illuminate, lunatic, lucid, and lynx.
  1. Basic form *leuk‑.
    1. Suffixed form *leuk-to‑.
      1. light1, from Old English lēoht, līht, light;
      2. lightning, from Old English līhtan, to shine, from Germanic *leuht-jan, to make light. Both a and b from Germanic *leuhtam.
    2. Basic form *leuk‑. luculent, lux; Lucifer, luciferin, from Latin lūx, light.
    3. Suffixed form *leuk-smen‑. limbers, limn, lumen, luminary, luminous; illuminate, phillumenist, from Latin lūmen, light, opening.
    4. Suffixed form *leuk-snā‑. Luna, lunar, lunate, lunatic, lune, lunula; mezzaluna, sublunary, from Latin lūna, moon.
    5. Suffixed form *leuk-stro‑.
      1. luster, lustrum, from Latin lūstrum, purification;
      2. illustrate, from Latin lūstrāre, to purify, illuminate.
    6. Suffixed form *leuko-dhro‑. lucubrate; elucubration, from Latin lūcubrāre, to work by lamplight.
    7. Suffixed form *leuk-o‑. leuko-; melaleuca, from Greek leukos, clear, white.
    8. Suffixed form *leuk-os, *leuk-es‑. risk, perhaps ultimately from Old Iranian raučah‑, day (Old Persian raucah‑).
  2. O-grade form *louk‑.
    1. Suffixed form *louk-o‑.
      1. lea, from Old English lēah, meadow (< "place where light shines"), from Germanic *lauhaz;
      2. levin, from Middle English levin, lightning, from Germanic *lauh-ubni‑.
    2. Suffixed (iterative) form *louk-eyo‑. lucent, lucid; elucidate, noctiluca, pellucid, relucent, translucent, from Latin lūcēre, to shine.
  3. Zero-grade form *luk‑.
    1. Suffixed form *luk-sno‑. link2, lychnis, from Greek lukhnos, lamp.
    2. Attributed by some to this root (but more likely of obscure origin) is Greek lunx, lynx (as if from its shining eyes) lynx, ounce2.
[Pokorny leuk‑ 687.]

Body, form; like, same. Germanic root.
Derivatives include alike, each, and frolic.
  1. lych-gate, from Old English līc, form, body.
  2. -ly1, -ly2, from Old English -līc, having the form of.
    1. alike, like2, likely, from Old English gelīc, similar, and Old Norse (g)līkr, like, both from Germanic *galīkaz;
    2. each; every, from Old English ǣlc, each, from Germanic phrase *aiwo galīkaz, "ever alike" (*aiwo,*aiwi, ever; see aiw-).
  3. Germanic compound *is-līk‑ (see i-).
  4. alike, from Old English onlīc, from Germanic *ana-līkaz.
  5. frolic, from Middle Dutch -lijc, -like.
  6. like1, from Old English līcian, to please, from Germanic *līkjan.
  7. Germanic compound *hwa-līk‑ (see kwo-).
[Pokorny 2. lē̆ig‑ 667.] ]

  1. Form *lino‑. linoleic acid, from Greek linon, flax.
  2. Form *līno‑. leno, line1, line2, lineage, linen, lingerie, linnet, lint; align, crinoline, linea aspera, linseed, from Latin līnum, flax, linen, thread.
[Pokorny lī̆-no‑ 691.]

louse, from Old English lūs, louse, from Germanic *lūs‑.
[Pokorny lū̆s‑ 692.]

Good; with derivatives meaning "occurring at a good moment, timely, seasonable, early. " Oldest form *meh2, colored to *mah2, becoming *mā‑.
  1. Suffixed form *mā-tu‑.
    1. Further suffixed form *mā-tu-ro‑. mature; immature, premature, from Latin mātūrus, seasonable, ripe, mature;
    2. further suffixed form *mā-tu-to‑. matinee, matins, matutinal, from Latin Mātūta, name of the goddess of dawn.
  2. Suffixed form *mā-ni‑.
    1. mañana, from Latin māne, (in) the morning;
    2. manes, from Latin mānis, mānus, good.
[Pokorny 2. mā‑ 693.]

Mother. A linguistic near-universal found in many of the world's languages, often in reduplicated form.
  1. mamma2, mammal, mammilla, mamoncillo, from Latin mamma, breast.
  2. Probably from this root is Greek Maia, "good mother" (respectful form of address to old women), also nurse Maia, maieutic; maiasaura.
  3. mama, more recently formed in the same way.
[Pokorny 3. 694.]

Also mak-.
To knead, fashion, fit. Oldest forms *mag̑‑, *mak̑‑, becoming *mag‑, *mak‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include make, mason, mingle, magma, and mass.
      1. make, from Old English macian, to make;
      2. mason, from Old French masson, mason;
      3. maquillage, from Middle Dutch maken, to make. (i)-(iii) all from Germanic verb *makōn, to fashion, fit.
    1. match1, from Old English gemæcca, mate, spouse, from Germanic compound noun *ga-mak-(j)ōn‑, "one who is fitted with (another)" (*ga‑, with, together; see kom). Both a and b from Germanic *mak‑.
    1. mingle, from Old English mengan, to mix;
    2. among, mongrel, from Old English gemang, mixture, crowd (ge‑, together; see kom). Both a and b from Germanic nasalized form *mangjan, to knead together.
  1. Suffixed form *mak-yo‑. magma, from Greek magma, unguent, from massein (aorist stem mag‑), to knead.
  2. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *māg-ya‑. mass; amass, from Greek māza, maza, a (kneaded) lump, barley cake.
  3. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *māk-ero‑. macerate, from Latin mācerāre, to tenderize, to soften (food) by steeping.
[Pokorny mag̑‑ 696, 2. māk‑ 698, men(ə)k‑ 730.]

To be able, have power.
Derivatives include dismay, might1, machine, and magic.
    1. may1, from Old English magan, to be able;
    2. dismay, from Old French esmaier, to frighten. Both a and b from Germanic *magan, to be able.
  1. might1, from Old English miht, power, from Germanic suffixed form *mah-ti‑, power.
  2. main, from Old English mægen, power, from Germanic suffixed form *mag-inam, power.
  3. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *māgh-anā‑, "that which enables." machine, mechanic, mechanism, mechano-; deus ex machina, from Greek (Attic) mēkhanē, (Doric) mākhanā, device.
  4. Possibly suffixed form *magh-u‑. magic, magus, from Old Persian maguš, member of a priestly caste (< "mighty one").
[Pokorny magh‑ 695.]

Young person of either sex. Suffixed form *magho-ti‑.
  1. maid, maiden, from Old English mægden, virgin;
  2. matjes herring, from Dutch maagd, maid. Both a and b from Germanic *magadi‑, with diminutive *magadin‑.
[Pokorny maghos 696.]

Long, thin. Oldest form *meh2k̑‑, colored to *mah2k̑‑, becoming *māk̑ in satem languages and *māk‑ in centum languages.
  1. Zero-grade form *mək‑ becoming *mak‑.
      1. meager, from Latin macer, thin;
      2. macro-, macron; amphimacer, from Greek makros, long, large. Both (i) and (ii) from suffixed form *mak-ro‑.
    1. emaciate, from Latin maciāre, to make thin, from suffixed form *mak-ye‑.
  2. Suffixed full-grade form *māk-es‑. mecopteran, paramecium, from Greek mēkos, length.
[Pokorny māk̑‑ 699.]

Also mon-.
  1. Extended forms *manu‑, *manw‑.
    1. man; leman, Norman1, from Old English man(n) (plural menn), man;
    2. fugleman, landsman2, from Old High German man, man;
    3. manikin, mannequin, from Middle Dutch man, man;
    4. yeoman, perhaps from Old Frisian man, man;
    5. Norman1, ombudsman, from Old Norse madhr, mannr, man;
    6. Alemanni, possibly from Germanic *Ala-manniz, tribal name (< "all men": *ala‑, all; see al-3). a-f all from Germanic *manna‑ (plural *manniz);
    7. Manu, from Sanskrit manuḥ, man, from Indo-Iranian *manu‑.
  2. mensch, from Old High German mennisco, human, from Germanic adjective *manniska‑, human, from *manna‑ (see 1).
  3. muzhik, from Russian muzh, man, male, from Slavic suffixed form *mon-gyo‑.
[Pokorny manu-s 700.]

Derivatives include manacle, maneuver, and manure.
    1. manacle, manage, manège, manner, manual, manubrium, manus; amanuensis, maintain, maneuver, manicotti, manicure, manifest, mansuetude, manufacture, manumit, manure, manuscript, mastiff, mortmain, quadrumanous, from Latin manus, hand;
    2. maniple, manipulation, from Latin manipulus, handful (-pulus, perhaps -ful; see pelə-1).
  1. Suffixed form *man-ko‑, maimed in the hand. manqué, from Latin mancus, maimed, defective.
  2. emancipate, from Latin compound manceps, "he who takes by the hand," purchaser (-ceps, agential suffix, "taker"; see kap-).
  3. mandamus, mandate, Maundy Thursday; command, commando, commend, countermand, demand, recommend, remand, from Latin compound mandāre, "to put into someone's hand," entrust, order (-dere, to put; see dhē-).
[Pokorny mə-r 740.]

  1. marshal, from Old French mareschal, from Frankish *marha-skalkaz, horse-servant (*skalkaz, servant).
  2. mare1, from Old English mere, miere, mare, from Germanic feminine *marhjōn‑.
[Pokorny marko‑ 700.]

Mother. Based ultimately on the baby-talk form mā-2 , with the kinship term suffix *-ter‑.
Derivatives include mother1, matrix, and matter.
    1. mother1, from Old English mōdor, mother;
    2. mother2, from Middle Dutch moeder, mother. Both a and b from Germanic *mōdar‑.
  1. alma mater, mater, maternal, maternity, matriculate, matrix, matron; madrepore, matrimony, from Latin māter, mother.
  2. metro-; metropolis, from Greek mētēr, mother.
  3. material, matter, from Latin māteriēs, māteria, tree trunk (< "matrix," the tree's source of growth), hence hard timber used in carpentry, hence (by a calque on Greek hūlē, wood, matter) substance, stuff, matter.
  4. Demeter, from Greek compound Dēmētēr, name of the goddess of produce, especially cereal crops (dē‑, possibly meaning "earth").
[Pokorny mātér‑ 700.]

Oblique form of the personal pronoun of the first person singular. For the nominative see eg.
  1. me, myself, from Old English mē̆ (dative and accusative), from Germanic *mē̆‑.
  2. Possessive adjective *mei-no‑.
    1. mine2, my, from Old English mīn, my;
    2. Mynheer, from Middle Dutch mijn, my. Both a and b from Germanic *mīn‑.
  3. Possessive adjective *me-yo‑. Madame, Monsieur, from Latin meus, mine.
  4. Genitive form *me-wo. mavourneen, from Old Irish mo, my.
[Pokorny 1. me‑ 702.]

In the middle of.
  1. Suffixed form *me-dhi. midwife, from Old English mid, among, with, from Germanic *mid‑.
  2. Suffixed form *me-ta. meta-, from Greek meta, between, with, beside, after.
[Pokorny 2. me‑ 702.]
See also medhyo-.

Expressing certain qualities of mind. Oldest form *meh1.
  1. Suffixed o-grade form *mō-to‑.
    1. mood1, from Old English mōd, mind, disposition;
    2. gemütlich, gemütlichkeit, from Old High German muot, mind, spirit. Both a and b from Germanic *mōthaz.
  2. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *mō-s‑. moral, morale, mores, morose, from Latin mōs, wont, humor, manner, custom.
[Pokorny 5. mē‑ 704.]

To measure. Oldest form *meh1.
Derivatives include piecemeal, immense, meter1, geometry, moon, and semester.
  1. Basic form mē‑.
    1. Suffixed form *mē-lo‑. meal2; piecemeal, from Old English mǣl, "measure, mark, appointed time, time for eating, meal," from Germanic *mēlaz.
    2. Suffixed form *mē-ti‑.
      1. measure, mensural; commensurate, dimension, immense, from Latin mētīrī, to measure;
      2. Metis, from Greek mētis, wisdom, skill.
    3. Possibly Greek metron, measure, rule, length, proportion, poetic meter (but referred by some to med-). meter1, meter2, meter3, -meter, metrical, -metry; diameter, gematria, geometry, isometric, metrology, metronome, symmetry.
    4. Reduplicated zero-grade form *mi-mə‑. mahout, maund, from Sanskrit mimīte, he measures.
  2. Extended and suffixed forms *mēn‑, *mēn-en‑, *mēn-ōt‑, *mēn-s‑, moon, month (an ancient and universal unit of time measured by the moon).
    1. moon; Monday, from Old English mōna, moon, from Germanic *mēnōn‑.
    2. month, from Old English mōnath, month, from Germanic *mēnōth‑.
    3. meno-; amenorrhea, catamenia, dysmenorrhea, emmenagogue, menarche, meniscus, menopause, from Greek mēn, mēnē, month.
    4. menses, menstrual, menstruate; bimestrial, semester, trimester, from Latin mēnsis, month.
[Pokorny 3. mē‑ 703, mēnōt 731.]

Big. Oldest form *meh1.
  1. Suffixed (comparative) form *mē-is‑. more, from Old English māra, greater, and māre (adverb), more, from Germanic *maizōn‑.
  2. Suffixed (superlative) form *mē-isto‑. most, from Old English mǣst, most, from Germanic *maista‑.
  3. Suffixed form *mē-ro‑, *mē-ri‑. Märchen, from Old High German māri, news, narration.
  4. Suffixed o-grade form *mō-ro‑. claymore, from Gaelic mōr, big, great.
[Pokorny 4. mē‑ 704.]

To cut down grass or grain with a sickle or scythe. Oldest form *meh1.
  1. mow2, from Old English māwan, to mow, from Germanic *mē‑.
  2. Suffixed form *mē-ti‑. aftermath, from Old English mǣth, a mowing, a mown crop, from Germanic *mēdiz.
  3. Suffixed form *mē-twā‑, a mown field. mead2, meadow, from Old English mǣd, meadow, from Germanic *mēdwō.
[Pokorny 2. mē‑ 703.]

To take appropriate measures.
Derivatives include medicine, modest, modern, commodity, and empty.
    1. mete1, from Old English metan, to measure (out), from Germanic *metan;
    2. meet2, from Old English gemǣte, "commensurate," fit (ge‑, with; see kom), from Germanic derivative *mǣtō, measure.
    1. medical, medicate, medicine, medico; metheglin, remedy, from Latin medērī, to look after, heal, cure;
    2. meditate, from Latin meditārī, to think about, consider, reflect.
  1. Suffixed form *med-es‑.
    1. modest; immodest, from Latin modestus, "keeping to the appropriate measure," moderate;
    2. moderate; immoderate, from Latin moderārī, "to keep within measure," to moderate, control. Both a and b from Latin *modes‑, replacing *medes‑ by influence of modus (see 5 below).
  2. Medusa, from Greek medein, to rule (feminine participle medousa < *med-ont-ya).
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *mod-o‑. modal, mode, model, modern, modicum, modify, modulate, module, modulus, mold1, mood2, moulage; accommodate, commode, commodious, commodity, from Latin modus, measure, size, limit, manner, harmony, melody.
  4. Suffixed o-grade form *mod-yo‑. modiolus, mutchkin, from Latin modius, a measure of grain.
  5. Possibly lengthened o-grade form *mōd‑.
    1. mote2, must1, from Old English mōtan, to have occasion, to be permitted or obliged;
    2. empty, from Old English ǣmetta, rest, leisure, from Germanic compound *ē-mōt-ja‑ (prefix *ē‑, meaning uncertain, from Indo-European , , to). Both a and b from Germanic *mōt‑, ability, leisure.
[Pokorny 1. med‑ 705.]

Honey; also mead.
  1. mead1, from Old English meodu, mead, from Germanic *medu.
  2. amethyst, methylene, from Greek methu, wine.
[Pokorny médhu‑ 707.]

Derivatives include middle, medieval, and meridian.
    1. mid1, midst; amid, from Old English midd(e), middle;
    2. middle, from Old English middel, middle, from West Germanic diminutive form *middila‑;
    3. Midgard, from Old Norse Midhgardhr, Midgard, from Germanic compound *midja-gardaz, "middle zone," name of the earth conceived as an intermediate zone lying between heaven and hell (*gardaz, enclosure, yard; see gher-1). a-c all from Germanic *midja‑.
  1. mean3, medal, medial, median, mediastinum, mediate, medium, mezzaluna, mezzanine, mezzotint, mizzen, moiety, mullion; intermediate, medieval, mediocre, mediterranean, meridian, milieu, from Latin medius, middle, half.
  2. meso-, from Greek mesos, middle.
  3. minge, from Romani mindž, vagina, possibly from Armenian mēǰ (stem miǰ‑), middle.
[Pokorny medhi‑ 706.]
See also me-2.

Great. Oldest form *meg̑‑, becoming *meg‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include much, magnate, mayor, maestro, and maharajah.
    1. mickle, much, from Old English micel, mycel, great;
    2. mickle, from Old Norse mikill. Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *mik-ila‑.
  1. Suffixed form *mag-no‑. magnate, magnitude, magnum; magnanimous, magnific, magnificent, magnifico, magnify, magniloquent, from Latin magnus, great.
  2. Suffixed (comparative) form *mag-yos‑.
    1. major, major-domo, majority, majuscule, mayor, from Latin māior, greater;
    2. maestoso, majesty, from Latin māiestās, greatness, authority;
    3. maestro, magisterial, magistral, magistrate, master, Mister, mistral, mistress, from Latin magister, master, high official (< "he who is greater").
  3. Suffixed (superlative) form *mag-samo‑. maxim, maximum, from Latin maximus, greatest.
  4. Suffixed (feminine) form *mag-ya‑, "she who is great." may2, May, from Latin Maia, name of a goddess.
  5. Suffixed form *meg-ə-(l‑). mega-, megalo-; acromegaly, omega, from Greek megas (stem megal‑), great.
  6. Suffixed (superlative) form meg-(ə)-isto‑. Almagest, Hermes Trismegistus, from Greek megistos, greatest.
  7. Variant form *megh‑ (< *meg-ə‑) Mahabharata, maharaja, maharani, maharishi, mahatma, Mahayana, mahout, from Sanskrit mahā‑, mahat‑, great.
[Pokorny meg̑(h)‑ 708.]

To change, go, move; with derivatives referring to the exchange of goods and services within a society as regulated by custom or law.
Derivatives include mad, molt, mutate, mistake, communism, amoeba, and migrate.
  1. meatus; congé, irremeable, permeate, from Latin meāre, to go, pass.
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *moi-to‑.
    1. mad, from Old English *gemǣdan, to make insane or foolish, from Germanic *ga-maid-jan, denominative from *ga-maid-az, "changed (for the worse)," abnormal (*ga‑, intensive prefix; see kom);
    2. mew1, molt, mutate; commute, permute, remuda, transmute, from Latin mūtāre, to change;
    3. mutual, from Latin mūtuus, "done in exchange," borrowed, reciprocal, mutual.
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *mi-tā‑. azimuth, zenith, from Latin sēmita, sidetrack, side path (< "thing going off to the side"; sē‑, apart; see s(w)e-).
  4. Suffixed zero-grade form *mi-tro‑.
    1. Mitra, from Sanskrit mitraḥ, friend, friendship;
    2. Mithras, from Avestan and Old Persian mithra‑, contract. Both a and b from Indo-Iranian *mitra‑, friend(ship), contract, god of the contract.
  5. Suffixed extended zero-grade form *mit-to‑.
    1. mis-1, from Old English mis‑, mis‑, and Old French mes‑ (from Frankish *miss‑);
    2. amiss, mistake, from Old Norse mis(s), mis(s)‑, miss, mis‑;
    3. miss1, from Old English missan, to miss, from Germanic *missjan, to go wrong. a-c all from Germanic *missa‑, "in a changed manner," abnormally, wrongly.
  6. Suffixed o-grade form *moi-n‑ in compound adjective *ko-moin-i‑, "held in common" (*ko‑, together; see kom).
    1. mean2, demean2, from Old English gemǣne, common, public, general, from Germanic *gamainiz;
    2. common, commune1, commune2, communicate, communism; excommunicate, incommunicado, from Latin commūnis, common, public, general.
  7. Suffixed o-grade form *moi-n-es‑.
    1. municipal, munificent, remunerate, from Latin mūnus, "service performed for the community," duty, work, "public spectacle paid for by a magistrate," gift;
    2. immune, from Latin immūnis, exempt from public service (in‑, negative prefix; see ne).
  8. Possibly extended form *(ə)meigw (but more likely a separate root).
    1. amoeba, from Greek ameibein, to change;
    2. migrate; emigrate, from Latin migrāre, to change one's place of living.
[Pokorny 2. mei‑, 3. mei‑ 710, mei-g 713, 2. mei-t(h)‑ 715.]

Derivatives include menu, mince, minestrone, and minister.
  1. meiofauna, meiosis; Miocene, from Greek meiōn, less, lesser, from extended variant *meiu‑.
  2. Zero-grade compounded suffixed form *ne-mi-s (see ne).
  3. Suffixed zero-grade form *mi-nu‑.
    1. menu, mince, minuend, minuet, minute2, minutiae, comminute, diminish, from Latin minuere, to reduce, diminish;
    2. minor, minus; minuscule, from Latin minor (influenced by the comparative suffix -or), less, lesser, smaller;
    3. further suffixed (superlative) form *minu-mo‑. minim, minimum, from Latin minimus, least;
    4. minestrone, minister, ministry, mystery2, from Latin minister, an inferior, servant (formed after magister, master; see meg-);
    5. Menshevik, from Russian men'she, less.
[Pokorny 5. mei‑ 711.]

To urinate. Oldest form *meig̑h‑, becoming *meigh‑ in centum languages.
    1. mist, from Old English mist, mist;
    2. mizzle1, from Middle English misellen, to drizzle, from a source perhaps akin to Dutch dialectal mieselen, to drizzle;
    3. missel thrush, mistletoe, from Old English mistel, mistletoe, from Germanic diminutive form *mihst-ila‑, mistletoe (which is propagated through the droppings of the missel thrush). a-c all from Germanic suffixed form *mih-stu‑, urine, hence mist, fine rain.
  1. Suffixed form *migh-tu‑. micturate, from Latin micturīre, to want to urinate (desiderative of meiere, to urinate).
[Pokorny meig̑h‑ 713.]

Also meig-.
To mix. Oldest forms *meik̑‑, *meig̑‑, becoming *meik‑, *meig‑ in centum languages.
  1. Zero-grade variant form *mig‑. migmatite; amphimixis, apomixis, panmixia, from Greek mignunai, to mix, and noun mixis (< *mig-ti‑), a mingling.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *mik-sk‑. meddle, medley, mélange, melee, mesclun, mestizo, miscellaneous, miscible, mix, mixture, mustang; admix, commix, immix, miscegenation, pell-mell, promiscuous, from Latin miscēre (past participle mixtus), to mix.
  3. Possibly Germanic *maisk‑ (phonological details unclear) mash, from Old English *māsc, *mācs, māx‑, mashed malt.
[Pokorny mei-k̑‑ 714.]

Opinion, intention.
  1. moan, from Old English *mān, opinion, complaint, from Germanic *main‑.
  2. mean1; bemoan, from Old English mǣnan, to signify, tell, complain of, moan, from Germanic *mainjan.
[Pokorny mei-no‑ 714.]

Soft; with derivatives referring to soft or softened materials of various kinds.
  1. Extended form *meld‑.
    1. melt, from Old English meltan, to melt, from Germanic *meltan.
    2. Possibly Germanic *miltja‑. milt, from Old English milte, spleen, and Middle Dutch milte, milt.
    3. Possibly Germanic *malta‑. malt, from Old English mealt, malt.
    4. Suffixed variant form *mled-sno‑. blenny, from Greek blennos, slime, also a name for the blenny.
    5. Suffixed zero-grade form *ml̥d-wi‑. moil, mojito, mollify, mollusk, mouillé; emollient, from Latin mollis, soft.
    6. Possibly nasalized variant form *mlad‑. bland, blandish, from Latin blandus, smooth, caressing, flattering, soft-spoken.
  2. Variant form *smeld‑.
    1. smelt1, from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German smelten, to smelt;
    2. schmaltz, from Old High German smalz, animal fat;
    3. smalt, from Italian smalto, enamel, glaze;
    4. enamel, from Old French esmail, enamel. a-d all from Germanic *smelt‑;
    5. smelt2, from Old English smelt, smylt, a marine fish, smelt, perhaps from Germanic *smelt‑.
  3. Extended form *meldh‑.
    1. mild, from Old English milde, mild, from Germanic *mildja‑.
    2. Possibly Greek maltha, a mixture of wax and pitch maltha.
  4. Suffixed form *mel-sko‑. mulch, from Old English mel(i)sc, mylsc, mild, mellow, from Germanic *mil-sk‑.
  5. Extended form *ml̥ək‑. bonanza, chondromalacia, malacology, osteomalacia, from Greek malakos, soft.
  6. Possibly Celtic *molto‑, sheep. mutton, from Old French moton, sheep.
  7. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *(ə)ml-u‑. amblygonite, amblyopia, from Greek amblus, blunt, dull, dim.
[Pokorny 1. mel‑ 716.]

Strong, great.
  1. Suffixed (comparative) form *mel-yos‑. ameliorate, meliorate, meliorism, from Latin melior, better.
  2. Suffixed zero-grade form *ml̥-to‑. molto, mucho, multi-, multitude, from Latin multus, much, many.
[Pokorny 4. mel‑ 720.]

False, bad, wrong.
  1. mal-, malice, malign; dismal, malady, malaria, maledict, malefactor, malefic, malentendu, malevolence, malison, malversation, from Latin malus, bad, and male, ill (> malignus, harmful).
  2. Perhaps suffixed zero-grade form *ml̥-s‑. blame, blaspheme, from Greek blasphēmos, blasphemous, perhaps from *ml̥s-bhā-mo‑, "speaking evil" (*bhā‑, to speak; see bhā-2).
  3. Suffixed form *mel-yo‑. markhor, from Avestan mairiia‑, treacherous.
[Pokorny 2. mel‑ 719, mēlo‑ 724.]

Also mel-.
To crush, grind; with derivatives referring to various ground or crumbling substances (such as flour) and to instruments for grinding or crushing (such as millstones). Oldest form *melh2.
  1. O-grade form *mol‑. maelstrom, from Middle Dutch malen, to whirl, from Germanic *mal‑.
  2. Full-grade form *mel‑. meal1, from Old English melu, flour, meal, from Germanic suffixed form *mel-wa‑.
  3. Zero-grade form *ml̥‑. mold3, molder, from Old English molde, soil, from Germanic suffixed form *mul-dō.
  4. Full-grade form *mel‑.
    1. meunière, mill1, mola2, molar2, mole4, moulin; emolument, immolate, ormolu, from Latin molere, to grind (grain), and its derivative mola, a millstone, mill, coarse meal customarily sprinkled on sacrificial animals;
    2. possible suffixed form *mel-iyo‑. mealie, miliary, milium, millet; gromwell, from Latin milium, millet.
  5. Suffixed variant form *mal-ni‑. malleable, malleolus, mallet, malleus, maul; pall-mall, from Latin malleus, hammer, mallet.
  6. Zero-grade form *ml̥‑. amylum, mylonite, from Greek mulē, mulos, millstone, mill.
  7. Possibly extended form *mlī‑. blini, blintz, from Old Russian blinŭ, pancake.
[Pokorny 1. mel‑ 716.]

To rub off; also to milk. Oldest form *h2melg̑‑, becoming *h2melg‑ in centum languages.
    1. Zero-grade form *ml̥g‑. emulsion, from Latin mulgēre, to milk.
    2. Full-grade form *melg‑.
      1. milk, from Old English meolc, milc;
      2. milch, from Old English -milce, milch, from Germanic suffixed form *meluk-ja‑, giving milk;
      3. milchig, from Old High German miluh, milk. a-c all from Germanic *melkan, to milk, contaminated with an unrelated noun for milk, cognate with the Greek and Latin forms given in II below, to form the blend *meluk‑.
  1. Included here to mark the unexplained fact that no common Indo-European noun for milk can be reconstructed is another root *g(a)lag‑, *g(a)lakt‑, milk, found only in the following:
    1. galactic, galacto-, galaxy; agalactia, polygala, from Greek gala (stem galakt‑), milk.
    2. lactate1, lactate2, lacteal, lactescent, lacto-, latte, lettuce; arroz con leche, dulce de leche, from Latin lac, milk.
    3. The blended Germanic form cited in I. 2. above.
[Pokorny mē̆lg̑‑ 722, glag‑ 400.]

  1. hydromel, marmalade, melilot, membrillo, oenomel, from Greek meli, honey.
    1. melliferous, mellifluous, molasses, from Latin mel (stem mell‑), honey, from *meld‑, syncopated from *melid‑;
    2. suffixed zero-grade form *ml̥d-to‑, "honied." mousse, from Latin mulsus, honey-sweet.
  2. mildew, from Old English mildēaw, honeydew, nectar, from Germanic compound *melith-dauwaz, honeydew (a substance secreted by aphids on leaves; it was formerly imagined to be distilled from the air like dew; *dauwaz, dew; see dheu-1), from *melith‑.
[Pokorny meli-t 723.]

To think; with derivatives referring to various qualities and states of mind and thought.
Derivatives include mind, mention, automatic, mania, money, monster, mosaic, music, and amnesia.
  1. Zero-grade form *mn̥‑.
    1. Suffixed form *mn̥-ti‑.
      1. mind, from Old English gemynd, memory, mind, from Germanic *ga-mundi‑ (*ga‑, collective prefix; see kom);
      2. mental1; amentia, dement, from Latin mēns (stem ment‑), mind;
      3. mention, from Latin mentiō, remembrance, mention.
    2. Suffixed form *mn̥-to‑. automatic, from Greek -matos, "willing.".
    3. Suffixed form *mn̥-yo‑.
      1. maenad, from Greek mainesthai, to be mad;
      2. Ahriman, from Avestan mainiiuš, spirit.
      1. mania, maniac, manic, from Greek maniā, madness;
      2. balletomane, from Greek -manēs, ardent admirer.
  2. Full-grade form *men‑.
    1. Suffixed form *men-ti‑.
      1. minnesinger, from Old High German minna, love;
      2. minikin, from Middle Dutch minne, love. Both a and b from Germanic *minthjō.
      1. memento, from Latin reduplicated form meminisse, to remember;
      2. comment, from Latin comminīscī, to contrive by thought (com‑, intensive prefix; see kom);
      3. reminiscent, from Latin reminīscī, to recall, recollect (re‑, again, back; see re-);
      4. possibly Latin Minerva, name of the goddess of wisdom Minerva.
      1. mentor, from Greek Mentōr, Mentor, man's name (probably meaning "adviser");
      2. -mancy, mantic, mantis, from Greek mantis, seer (vocalism obscure).
    2. mandarin, mantra, from Sanskrit mantraḥ, counsel, prayer, hymn.
    3. Suffixed form men-es‑. Eumenides, from Greek menos, spirit.
  3. O-grade form *mon‑.
    1. Suffixed (causative) form *mon-eyo‑. monish, monition, monitor, monster, monument, muster; admonish, demonstrate, premonition, summon, from Latin monēre, to remind, warn, advise.
    2. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-twa. mosaic, Muse, museum, music, from Greek Mousa, a Muse.
  4. Extended form *mnā‑, contracted from *mnaə‑.
    1. amnesia, amnesty, anamnesis, from Greek reduplicated form mimnēskein, to remember.
    2. mnemonic, from Greek mnēmōn, mindful.
    3. Mnemosyne, from Greek mnēmē, memory.
  5. Indo-European verb phrase *mens dhē‑, "to set mind" (*dhē‑, to put; see dhē-) underlying compound noun *mn̥s-dhē‑. Ahura Mazda, Mazdaism, Ormazd, from Avestan mazdā‑, wise.
[Pokorny 3. men‑ 726, mendh‑ 730.]

To project.
Derivatives include mouth, menace, and mountain.
  1. Suffixed zero-grade form *mn̥-to‑ in a western Indo-European word for a projecting body part, variously "chin, jaw, mouth."
    1. mouth, from Old English mūth, mouth, from Germanic *munthaz;
    2. mental2, from Latin mentum, chin.
  2. menace, minacious; amenable, demean1, promenade, from Latin minae, projecting points, threats.
  3. eminent, imminent, prominent, promontory, from Latin -minēre, to project, jut, threaten.
  4. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-ti‑. mons, Montagnard, montane, monte, monticule, mount1, mount2, mountain; amount, ultramontane, from Latin mōns (stem mont‑), mountain.
[Pokorny 1. men‑ 726, 2. menth‑ 732.]

To remain. Variant suffixed (stative) form *man-ē‑.
manor, manse, mansion, ménage; immanent, permanent, remain, from Latin manēre, to remain.
[Pokorny 5. men‑ 729.]

Small, isolated.
  1. manometer, from Greek manos, rare, sparse.
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-wo‑. monad, monastery, monk, mono-; pseudomonad, from Greek monos, alone, single, sole.
  3. Possibly also suffixed form *men-i‑, a small fish. minnow, from Middle English meneu, a small fish, from a source akin to Old English myne, mynwe, minnow.
[Pokorny 4. men‑ 728, meni‑ 731.]

To learn. Zero-grade form *mn̥dh‑.
mathematical, mathematics; chrestomathy, polymath, from Greek manthanein (aorist stem math‑), to learn.
[Pokorny mendh‑ 730.]

many, from Old English manig, mænig, many, from Germanic *managa‑.
[Pokorny men(e)gh‑ 730.]

To rub away, harm.
Derivatives include nightmare, morsel, morbid, mortal, mortgage, and ambrosia.
    1. nightmare, from Old English mare, mære, goblin, incubus, from Germanic *marōn‑, goblin.
    2. marasmus; amaranth, from Greek marainein, to waste away, wither.
    3. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *mor-i‑ in Old Irish fomoire, fomoir, Fomorian, perhaps from earlier *wo-mor-i‑, sinister supernatural being (*wo‑ under; < *upo‑; see upo): Fomorian.
    4. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *mr̥-to‑, "ground down." mortar, from Latin mortārium, mortar.
    5. Possibly extended root *merd‑. mordacious, mordant, mordent, morsel; premorse, remorse, from Latin mordēre, to bite.
    6. Possibly suffixed form *mor-bho‑. morbid, from Latin morbus, disease (but this is more likely of unknown origin).
  1. Possibly the same root is *mer‑, "to die," with derivatives referring to death and to human beings as subject to death.
    1. Zero-grade form *mr̥‑.
      1. Suffixed form *mr̥-tro‑. murder, from Old English morthor, murder, from Germanic suffixed form *mur-thra‑;
      2. suffixed form *mr̥-ti‑. mort1, mortal; amortize, mortify, postmortem, from Latin mors (stem mort‑), death;
      3. suffixed form *mr̥-yo‑. moribund, mortgage, mortmain, mortuary, murrain, from Latin morī, to die, with irregular past participle mortuus (< *mr̥-two‑), replacing older *mr̥-to‑ (for which see d);
      4. prefixed and suffixed form *n̥-mr̥-to‑, "undying, immortal." *n̥‑, negative prefix; see ne)
        1. immortal, from Latin immortālis;
        2. ambrosia, from Greek ambrotos, immortal, divine(a‑ + -mbrotos, brotos, mortal);
        3. amrita, from Sanskrit amṛtam, immortality (a‑ + mṛta‑, dead).
    2. Suffixed o-grade form *mor-t-yo‑. manticore, from Greek mantikhōras (corrupted from marti(o)khōras), manticore, probably from Iranian compound *martiya-khvāra‑, "man-eater" (*khvāra‑, eating; see swel-), from Old Persian martiya‑, a mortal man.
[Pokorny 4. mer‑, 5. mer‑ 735.]

Boundary, border. Oldest form *merg̑‑, becoming *merg‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include marquee, demarcation, and margin.
    1. mark1, from Old English mearc, boundary, landmark, sign, trace;
    2. margrave, from Middle Dutch marc, border;
    3. march2, marquee, marquis, marquise, from Old French marc, marche, border country;
    4. marchese, marchioness, from Medieval Latin marca, boundary, border;
    5. demarcation, from Old Italian marcare, to mark out;
    6. mark2, from Old English marc, a mark of weight or money;
    7. markka, from Swedish mark, a mark of money;
    8. marka, from Middle High German marke, mark of money. a-h all from Germanic *mark‑, boundary, border territory; also to mark out a boundary by walking around it (ceremonially "beating the bounds"); also a landmark, boundary marker, and a mark in general (and in particular a mark on a metal currency bar, hence a unit of currency); these various meanings are widely represented in Germanic descendants and in Romance borrowings.
  1. letters of marque, marquetry; remark, from Old Norse merki, a mark, from Germanic *markja‑, mark, border.
  2. marc, march1, from Frankish *markōn, to mark out, from Germanic denominative verb *markōn.
  3. margin; emarginate, from Latin margō, border, edge.
  4. Celtic variant form *mrog‑, territory, land. Cymry, from Welsh Cymro, Wales, from British Celtic *kom-brogos, fellow countryman (*kom‑, collective prefix; see kom), from *brogos, district.
[Pokorny mereg̑‑ 738.]

To push away.
mob, mobile, moment, momentous, momentum, mosso, motif, motion, motive, motor, move, movement; commotion, emotion, promote, remote, remove, from Latin movēre, to move.
[Pokorny 2. meu̯‑ 743.]

meed, from Old English mēd, reward, compensation, meed, from West Germanic *mēdō‑, from Germanic *mizdō.
[Pokorny mizdhó‑ 746.]

Body of water; lake (?), sea (?).
    1. mere2; mermaid, from Old English mere, sea, lake, pond;
    2. marram grass, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse marr, sea;
    3. meerschaum, from Old High German mari, sea;
    4. meerkat, from Middle Dutch meer, sea. a-d all from Germanic *mari‑.
    1. marsh, from Old English mersc, merisc, marsh;
    2. morass, from Old French maresc, mareis, marsh. Both a and b from Germanic *mariska‑, water-logged land.
  1. maar, mare2, marinara, marine, maritime; bêche-de-mer, cormorant, mariculture, ormer, ultramarine, from Latin mare, sea.
[Pokorny mori 748.]

Short. Oldest form *mreg̑h-u‑, becoming *mregh-u‑ in centum languages.
  1. Suffixed form *mregh-wi‑. brief, brumal; abbreviate, abridge, from Latin brevis, short.
  2. Zero-grade form *mr̥ghu‑.
      1. merry, from Old English myrge, mirige, pleasant;
      2. mirth, from Old English myrgth, pleasure, joy, from Germanic *murgithō, pleasantness. Both a and b from Germanic *murgja‑, short, also pleasant, joyful.
    1. brachy-; amphibrach, tribrach, from Greek brakhus, short.
    2. brace, bracero, brachium, brassard, brassiere, pretzel; abrachia, embrace, from Greek comparative brakhiōn, shorter, hence also "upper arm" (as opposed to the longer forearm).
[Pokorny mreg̑hu‑ 750.]

A mouse; also a muscle (from the resemblance of a flexing muscle to the movements of a mouse).
  1. mouse, from Old English mūs (plural mȳs), mouse, from Germanic *mūs‑ (plural *mūsiz).
  2. murine, muscle, mussel, mustelid, musteline, from Latin mūs, mouse.
  3. myelo-, myo-; epimysium, myosotis, mysticete, perimysium, syringomyelia, from Greek mūs, mouse, muscle.
  4. Perhaps suffixed reduced form *mus-ko‑. Muscadet, muscat, muscatel, musk, must5; nutmeg, from Sanskrit muṣkaḥ, testicle, scrotum (? < "little mouse").
[Pokorny mūs 752.]

  1. nose, nuzzle; nostril, from Old English nosu, nose, from Germanic zero-grade form *nusō.
  2. ness, from Old English næss, headland, from Germanic *nasja‑.
  3. Lengthened-grade form *nās‑.
    1. naris, from Latin nāris, nostril;
    2. expressive form *nāss‑. nasal, naso-; nasturtium, pince-nez, from Latin nāsus, nose.
  4. nark2, from Romany nāk, nose, from expressive Indo-Aryan form *nakka‑.
[Pokorny nas‑ 755, neu-ks‑ 768.]

Boat. Oldest form *neh2u‑, colored to *nah2u‑, becoming *nau‑ (before consonants) and *nāw‑ (before vowels).
  1. nacelle, naval, nave1, navicular, navigate, navy, from Latin nāvis, ship.
  2. nausea, -naut, nautical, nautilus, noise; aeronaut, Argonaut, astronaut, cosmonaut, from Greek naus, ship, and nautēs, sailor.
[Pokorny 1. nāus‑ 755.]

    1. under, under-, from Old English under, under;
    2. U-boat, from Old High German untar, under. Both a and b from Germanic *under‑.
  1. inferior, from Latin īnferus, lower.
  2. infernal, inferno, from Latin īnfernus, lower.
  3. infra-, from Latin īnfrā, below.
[Pokorny n̥dhos 771.]

Derivatives include naughty, never, nothing, annul, nice, annihilate, negligee, deny, and renegade.
    1. naught, naughty, neither, never, nill, no1, no2, none, nor1, not, nothing; hobnob, from Old English ne, not, and , no;
    2. nay, from Old Norse ne, not;
    3. nix2, from Old High German ne, ni, not. a-c all from Germanic *ne‑, *na‑.
  1. annul, nefarious, nescience, neuter, nice, null, nullify, nullipara, from Latin ne‑, not, and nūllus, none (ne‑, + ūllus, any; see oi-no-).
  2. nimiety, from Latin nimis, too much, excessively, very (< *ne-mi-s, "not little"; *mi‑, little; see mei-2).
  3. nihilism, nihility, nil; annihilate, from Latin nihil, nīl, nothing, contracted from nihilum, nothing (< *ne-hīlum, "not a whit, nothing at all"; hīlum, a thing, trifle; origin unknown).
  4. non-; nonplus, nonsuit, from Latin nōn, not (< *ne-oinom, not one thing"; *oino‑, one; see oi-no-).
  5. nisi, from Latin nisi, unless (, not, from *nei + , if; see swo-).
    1. neglect, negligee, negotiate, from Latin prefix neg‑, not;
    2. negate; abnegate, deny, renegade, renege, from Latin negāre, to deny. Both a and b from Italic *nek, not.
  6. nepenthe, from Greek nē‑, not.
  7. Zero-grade combining form *n̥‑.
      1. un-1, from Old English un‑, not;
      2. Zugunruhe, from Old High German un‑, not. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *un‑.
    1. in-1, from Latin in‑, not;
    2. a-1, an-, from Greek a‑, an‑, not;
    3. ahimsa, from Sanskrit a‑, an‑, not;
    4. compound *n̥-mr̥-to‑ (see mer-).
[Pokorny 1. 756.]

  1. Suffixed form *nebh-(e)lo‑.
    1. Niflheim, from Old Norse nifl‑, "mist" or "dark," probably from Germanic *nibila‑;
    2. Nibelung, from Old High German Nibulunc, Nibilung, from Germanic suffixed patronymic form *nibul-unga‑, beside Old High German nebul, mist, fog, from Germanic *nebla‑.
  2. Suffixed form *nebh-elā‑.
    1. nebula, nebulous, from Latin nebula, cloud;
    2. nepheline; nephelometer, from Greek nephelē, cloud.
  3. Suffixed form *nebh-es‑. nephology, from Greek nephos, cloud.
  4. Nasalized form *ne-m-bh‑. nimbus, from Latin nimbus, rain, cloud, aura.
[Pokorny 2. (enebh‑) 315.]

To bind, tie.
  1. O-grade form *nod‑.
    1. net1, from Old English net(t), a net, from Germanic *nati‑;
    2. nettle, from Old English netel(e), netle, nettle, from Germanic *nat-ilo, a nettle (nettles or plants of closely related genera such as hemp were used as a source of fiber);
    3. ouch2, from Anglo-Norman nouch, brooch, from Germanic *nat-sk‑.
  2. Lengthened o-grade form *nōdo‑. node, nodule, nodus, noil, noose; denouement, from Latin nōdus, a knot.
  3. With re-formation of the root. nexus; adiponectin, adnexa, annex, connect, fibronectin, from Latin nectere (past participle nexus), to tie, bind, connect.
[Pokorny 1. ned‑ 758.]

Death. Oldest form *nek̑‑, becoming *nek‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include nuisance, innocent, and nectarine.
  1. internecine, pernicious, from Latin nex (stem nec‑), death.
  2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *nok-eyo‑. nocebo, nocent, nocuous, nuisance; innocent, innocuous, from Latin nocēre, to injure, harm.
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *nok-s‑. noxious; obnoxious, from Latin noxa, injury, hurt, damage entailing liability.
  4. Suffixed full-grade form *nek-ro‑. necro-, necrosis; necromancy, from Greek nekros, corpse.
  5. nectar, nectarine, from Greek nektar, the drink of the gods, "overcoming death" (*tar‑, overcoming; see terə-2).
[Pokorny nek̑‑ 762.]

To reach, attain. Oldest form *nek̑‑, becoming *nek‑ in centum languages.
  1. O-grade form *nok‑. enough, from Old English genōg, enough, from Germanic *ganōga‑, sufficient, from *ga-nah, "suffices" (*ga‑, collective prefix; see kom).
  2. Variant form *enk‑.
    1. oncogenesis, oncolite, oncology, from Greek reduplicated enenkein, to carry (suppletive aorist of pherein, to carry; see bher-), with derived noun onkos, a burden, mass, hence a tumor (from suffixed o-grade *onk-o‑; see 2 below).
    2. Suffixed o-grade form *onk-o‑. paisa, pice, from Sanskrit aṁśaḥ, part, portion.
    3. Compound root *bhrenk‑ (see bher1).
[Pokorny enek̑‑ 316.]

Night (perhaps originally "twilight, twilight of the morning and evening" as opposed to *kwsep‑, "the dark of the night"). Probably from a verbal root *negw, to be dark, be night. O-grade form *nokw-t‑.
    1. night; fortnight, from Old English niht, neaht, night;
    2. Kristallnacht, from Old High German naht, night. Both a and b from Germanic *naht‑.
  1. nocti-, nocturn, nocturnal, equinox, from Latin nox (stem noct‑), night.
  2. noctuid, noctule, from Latin noctua, night owl.
  3. Nix; nyctalopia, nyctinasty, from Greek nux (stem nukt‑), night.
  4. Perhaps zero-grade form *n̥kw-t‑. actinium, actino-, from Greek aktīs (stem aktīn‑), ray, traditionally taken as from *n̥kw-t‑. This derivation is supported by the Sanskrit cognate aktuḥ, meaning both "ray" and "night,", but has recently contested in favor of a derivation from ak-, "sharp," the rays of the sun originally having been conceived of as a pointed weapon. If the oldest meaning of *nekw-t‑ is "twilight," however, Greek aktīs the traditional derivation from n̥kw-t‑ can be upheld if the Greek word is considered to have originally referred to the rays of the sun seen in the morning and evening twilight.
  5. Suffixed plain verbal root *negw-ro‑. Negro, niello, nigella, nigrescence, nigrosine; denigrate, film noir, Pinot Noir, from Latin niger, black.
[Pokorny nek-(t‑) 762.]

To assign, allot; also to take.
Derivatives include numb, nemesis, and nomad.
    1. numb; benumb, from Old English niman, to take, seize;
    2. nimble, from Old English nǣmel, quick to seize, and numol, quick at learning, seizing;
    3. nim, from Old High German nëman, to take. a-c all from Germanic *nem‑.
  1. nemesis; economy, from Greek nemein, to allot.
  2. Suffixed e-grade form *nom-os, *nom-es‑. namaskar, namaste, from Sanskrit namaḥ, namas‑, obeisance.
  3. O-grade form *nom‑.
    1. nome, -nomy; anomie, antinomian, antinomy, astronomer, astronomy, autonomous, chironomid, Deuteronomy, metronome, nomograph, nomology, nomothetic, numismatic, from Greek nomos, portion, usage, custom, law, division, district;
    2. noma, from Greek nomē, pasturage, grazing, hence a spreading, a spreading ulcer;
    3. nomad, from Greek nomas, wandering in search of pasture;
    4. nummular, nummulite, from Greek nomimos, legal.
  4. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *nom-eso‑. number, numeral; enumerate, innumerable, supernumerary, from Latin numerus, number, division.
[Pokorny 1. nem‑ 763.]

Grandson, nephew. Feminine *neptī‑.
nephew, nepotism, niece, from Latin nepōs, grandson, nephew, and neptis, granddaughter, niece.
[Pokorny nepōt‑ 764.]

Under, also on the left; hence, with an eastward orientation, north. Suffixed zero-grade form *nr̥-t(r)o‑.
  1. Nordic, norteño, north, from Old English north, north;
  2. northern, from Old English northerne, northern;
  3. Norse, from Middle Dutch nort, north;
  4. Norman1, Norwegian, from Old Norse nordhr, north.
[Pokorny 2. ner‑ 765.]
Compare deks-.

Man; basic sense "vigorous, vital, strong."
Oldest form *h2ner‑. andro-, -androus, -andry; philander, from Greek anēr (stem andr‑, from zero-grade form *ənr‑), man.
[Pokorny 1. ner-(t‑) 765.]

To return safely home.
  1. harness, from Old French harneis, harness, possibly from a Germanic source akin to Old English, Old High German (in composition), and Old Norse nest, food for a journey, from Germanic *nes-tam.
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *nos-to‑. nostalgia, from Greek nostos, a return home.
[Pokorny nes‑ 766.]

Oblique cases of the personal pronoun of the first person plural. For the nominative see we-.
  1. Zero-grade form *n̥s‑. us, from Old English ūs, us (accusative), from Germanic *uns.
  2. Suffixed (possessive) zero-grade form *n̥s-ero‑. our, ours, from Old English ūser, ūre, our, from Germanic *unsara‑.
  3. O-grade form *nos‑, with suffixed (possessive) form *nos-t(e)ro‑. Nostratic, nostrum; paternoster, from Latin nōs, we, and noster, our.
[Pokorny 3. ne‑ 758.]

To shout.
Suffixed (participial) o-grade form *now-ent-(yo‑), "shouting." nuncio; announce, denounce, enunciate, internuncio, pronounce, renounce, from Latin nūntius, "announcing," hence a messenger, also a message, and nūntium, message.
[Pokorny 1. neu‑ 767.]

  1. nine, nineteen, ninety, ninth, from Old English nigon, nine, with derivatives nigontig, ninety, and nigontēne, nineteen (-tēne, ten; see dekm̥), from Germanic *nigun, variant of *niwun.
  2. November, novena; nonagenarian, from Latin novem, nine (< *noven, with m for n by analogy with the m of septem, seven, and decem, ten).
  3. Ordinal form *neweno‑. nona-, nones, noon; nonagon, nonanoic acid, from Latin nōnus, ninth.
  4. Prothetic or prefixed forms *h1newn̥, *h1nwn̥. ennead, enneagram, from Greek ennea, nine (< *ennewa, *enwa‑).
[Pokorny e-neu̯en 318.]

New. Related to nu-.
Derivatives include neon, and nova.
  1. Suffixed form *new-yo‑.
    1. new, from Old English nēowe, nīwe, new;
    2. Nynorsk, span-new, from Old Norse nȳr, new. Both a and b from Germanic *neuja‑.
  2. Basic form *newo‑. neo-, neon, neoteric; misoneism, from Greek newos, neos, new.
  3. Suffixed form *new-aro‑. aneroid, from Greek nēron, water, from nēros, fresh (used of fish and of water), contracted from nearos, young, fresh.
  4. Basic form *newo‑. nova, novation, novel1, novel2, novelty, novice, novillada, novillero; innovate, renovate, ergonovine, from Latin novus, new.
  5. Suffixed form *new-er-ko‑. novercal, from Latin noverca, stepmother (< "she who is new").
[Pokorny neu̯os 769.]

Also ombh-.
Navel; later also "central knob," boss of a shield, hub of a wheel. Oldest form *h3nobh‑, variant *h3ombh‑ (< *h3onbh‑).
    1. nave2, from Old English nafu, nafa, hub of a wheel;
    2. auger, from Old English nafogār, auger, from Germanic compound *nabō-gaizaz, tool for piercing wheel hubs (*gaizaz, spear, piercing tool). Both a and b from Germanic *nabō.
  1. Variant form *ombh‑. umbo, from Latin umbō, boss of a shield.
  2. Suffixed form *nobh-alo‑. navel, from Old English nafela, navel, from Germanic *nabalō.
  3. Suffixed variant form *ombh-alo‑.
    1. umbilicus; nombril, from Latin umbilīcus, navel;
    2. omphalos, from Greek omphalos, navel.
[Pokorny 1. (enebh‑) 314.]

Also ongh-.
Nail, claw. Oldest forms *h3nogh‑, *h3ongh‑.
  1. Suffixed (diminutive) form *nogh-elo‑. nail, from Old English nægl, nail, from Germanic *nagla‑.
  2. Form *ənogh‑. onyx; deinonychus, paronychia, perionychium, sardonyx, from Greek onux (stem onukh‑), nail.
  3. Variant form *ongh‑. unguiculate, unguis, ungulate, from Latin unguis, nail, claw, hoof, with diminutive ungula, hoof, claw, talon (< *ongh-elā‑).
[Pokorny onogh‑ 780.]

  1. Suffixed forms *nogw-eto‑, *nogw-oto‑. naked, from Old English nacod, naked, from Germanic *nakweda‑, *nakwada‑.
  2. Suffixed form *nogw-edo‑. nude, nudi-; denude, from Latin nūdus, naked.
  3. Suffixed form *nogw-mo‑. gymnasium, gymnast; gymnosophist, gymnosperm, from Greek gumnos, naked (with metathesis due to taboo deformation).
  4. Suffixed form *nogw-no‑. naan, from Old Persian *nagna‑, bare, naked.
[Pokorny nog 769.]

Name. Oldest form *h1no(h3)-mn̥, zero-grade form *h1n̥(h3)-men‑.
  1. name, from Old English nama, name, from Germanic *namōn‑.
  2. nominal, nominate, noun; agnomen, anomia, binomial, cognomen, denominate, ignominy, misnomer, nomenclator, nuncupative, praenomen, pronoun, renown, from Latin nōmen, name, reputation.
  3. onomastic, -onym, -onymy; allonym, anonymous, antonomasia, eponym, eponymous, euonymus, heteronymous, homonymous, matronymic, metonymy, onomatopoeia, paronomasia, paronymous, patronymic, pseudonym, synonymous, from Greek onoma, onuma, name (assimilated from enuma, preserved in proper names in Laconian).
  4. moniker, from Old Irish ainm, name.
[Pokorny en(o)mn̥‑ 321.]

Now. Related to newo-.
  1. now, from Old English , now.
  2. quidnunc, from Latin nunc, now (< *nun-ce; -ce, a particle meaning "this," "here"; see ko-).
[Pokorny nu‑ 770.]

To hate.
annoy, ennui, noisome, odium, from Latin ōdī, I hate, and odium, hatred.
[Pokorny 2. od‑ 773.]

One, unique.
Derivatives include once, atone, union, universe, and any.
  1. Basic form *oi-no‑.
      1. a1, an1, once, one; alone, anon, atone, lone, lonely, none, from Old English ān, one;
      2. eleven, from Old English endleofan, eleven, from Germanic compound *ain-lif‑, "one left (beyond ten)," eleven (*lif‑, left over; see leikw-);
      3. einkorn, turnverein, from Old High German ein, one. a-c all from Germanic *ainaz.
    1. uni-, union, unite, unity; coadunate, triune, unanimous, unicorn, universe, from Latin ūnus, one.
    2. indricothere, from Old Russian inŭ, one.
    3. Latin nōn, not (< *ne-oinom, "not one thing"; see ne).
  2. Suffixed form *oino-ko‑.
    1. any, from Old English ǣnig, one, anyone, from Germanic *ainigaz;
    2. unique, from Latin ūnicus, sole, single;
    3. inch1, ounce1, uncial; quincunx, from Latin ūncia, one twelfth of a unit.
  3. Suffixed form *oino-lo‑ in Latin ūllus (see ne).
[Pokorny 3. D. e‑ 281.]

To take along, fetch. Oldest form h3eit‑, colored to h3oit‑.
  1. usage, use, usual, usurp, usury, utensil, utility, utilize; abuse, peruse, from Latin ūtī, to use.
  2. Suffixed form oit-to-.esophagus, from Greek ois‑, nominal stem and future tense stem corresponding to pherein, to carry, abstracted from verbal adjective oistos, able to be borne, endurable, from earlier *oit-to-s, carried, by regular phonological change.
[Not in Pokorny. ]

Eight. Oldest form *ok̑tō(u), becoming *oktō(u) in centum languages.
    1. eight, eighteen, eighty, from Old English eahta, eight, with derivatives eahtatig, eighty, and eahtatēne, eighteen (-tēne, ten; see dekm̥);
    2. atto-, from Old Norse āttjān, eighteen (tjān, ten; see dekm̥). Both a and b from Germanic *ahtō.
  1. Octans, octant, octave, octavo, octet, octo-, October, octonary; octodecimo, octogenarian, from Latin octō, eight.
  2. octad, octo-; octopus, from Greek oktō, eight.
[Pokorny ok̑tō(u) 775.]

Swift. Oldest form *ōk̑u‑, becoming *ōku‑ in centum languages.
  1. oxytocic, from Greek ōkus, swift.
  2. Possibly altered zero-grade form *aku‑ in compound *aku-petro‑, "swift-flying" (*pet-ro‑, flying; see pet-). accipiter, from Latin accipiter, hawk.
[Pokorny ōk̑ú-s 775.]
See also ekwo-.

To see. Oldest form *h3ekw, colored to *h3okw, zero-grade *h3kw.
Derivatives include eye, daisy, window, inoculate, and autopsy.
    1. eye; daisy, from Old English ēage, eye;
    2. walleyed, window, from Old Norse auga, eye;
    3. augen, from German Auge, eye;
    4. ogle, from Low German oog, oge, eye. a-d all from Germanic *augōn‑ (with taboo deformation).
  1. Suffixed form *okw-olo‑.
    1. eyelet, ocellus, ocular, oculist, oculus, ullage; antler, inoculate, monocle, oculomotor, pinochle, from Latin oculus, eye;
    2. inveigle, from French aveugle, blind, from Gallo-Latin compound *ab-oculus, blind, calqued on Gaulish exs-ops, blind.
  2. Form *okw-s. ceratopsian, metopic, myopia, nyctalopia, Pelops, phlogopite, prosopography, prosopopeia, pyrope, triceratops, from Greek ōps, eye (and stem *op‑, to see).
  3. Suffixed form *okw-s‑. cushy, perhaps from Urdu khuš, good, from Persian khvaš, from Middle Persian xvašš, perhaps from Old Iranian *khvaxši‑, having a good appearance, from *axšši, eye (Avestan aši‑) (hu‑, xw, good; see (e)su-).
  4. Suffixed form *okw-ti‑. opsin, -opsis, -opsy; autopsy, dropsy, iodopsin, rhodopsin, synopsis, from Greek opsis, sight, appearance.
  5. Suffixed form *okw-to‑. optic; diopter, optoelectronics, optometry, panoptic, from Greek optos, seen, visible.
  6. Suffixed form *okw-ā‑. metope, from Greek opē, opening.
  7. Suffixed form *okw-mn̥. ommatidium, ommatophore, from Greek omma (< *opma), eye.
  8. Suffixed form *okw-tro‑. catoptric, from Greek katoptron, "back-looker," mirror (kata‑, down, back; see kat-).
  9. ophthalmo-; exophthalmos, from Greek ophthalmos, eye (with taboo deformation).
  10. Zero-grade form *əkw, in compounds (see ant-, āter-, ghwer-).
[Pokorny ok 775.]

To work, produce in abundance. Oldest form *h3ep‑, colored to *h3op‑.
Derivatives include opera1, maneuver, manure, opulent, and cornucopia.
  1. Suffixed form *op-es‑. opera1, operate, operose, opus; cooperate, inure, maneuver, manure, officinal, stover, from Latin opus (stem oper‑), work, with its denominative verb operārī, to work, and secondary noun opera, work.
  2. Italic compound *opi-fici-om (see dhē-).
  3. Suffixed form *op-en-ent‑. opulent, from Latin dissimilated opulentus, rich, wealthy.
  4. Suffixed form *op-ni‑. omni-, omnibus; omnium-gatherum, from Latin omnis, all (< "abundant").
  5. Suffixed (superlative) form *op-tamo‑. optimum, from Latin optimus, best (< "wealthiest").
  6. copious, copy; cornucopia, from Latin cōpia, profusion, plenty, from prefixed form *co-op‑ (co‑, collective and intensive prefix; see kom).
[Pokorny 1. op‑ 780.]

Large bird. Oldest form *h3er‑, colored to *h3or‑.
  1. Suffixed form *or-n‑. erne, from Old English earn, eagle, from Germanic *arnuz, eagle.
  2. Suffixed form *or-n-īth‑. ornitho-; aepyornis, notornis, from Greek ornīs (stem ornīth‑), bird.
[Pokorny 1. er‑ 325.]

To turn, with derivatives referring to change of change allegiance or status. Oldest form *h3erbh‑, colored *h3orbh‑. Suffixed form *orbh-o‑, "bereft of father," also "deprived of free status."
  1. Suffixed form *orbh-o‑.
    1. In words referring to the act of turning: Gastarbeiter, from Old High German arabeit(i), labor, from Germanic *arbaithi‑, perhaps from *orbo-iti‑, "a going of a turn," in reference to the repetitive nature of agricultural labor (*-iti‑, a going; see ei-);
    2. In words referring to orphans and persons of reduced or changed status:
      1. orphan, from Greek orphanos, orphaned;
      2. robot, from Czech robota, compulsory labor, drudgery, from Old Church Slavonic rabota, servitude, from rabŭ, slave, from Old Slavic *orbŭ.
  2. Suffixed form *orbh-i‑.
    1. orb, orbicular, orbiculate, from Latin orbis, disc, sphere (< "that which turns");
    2. Further suffixed form *orbh-i-t‑. orbit, from Latin orbita, rut, track made by a wheel.
  3. Perhaps from this root is the Greek mythological name Orpheus (? < "he who goes to the other side" or "he who turns"). Orpheus, Orphic, Orphism.
[Pokorny orbho‑ 781.]

Buttocks, backside.
  1. Suffixed form *ors-o‑.
    1. arse, ass2, from Old English ærs, ears, backside;
    2. dodo, from Middle Dutch ærs, backside, tail. Both a and b from Germanic *arsaz.
  2. Suffixed form *ors-ā‑.
    1. uro-2, -urous; anthurium, anuran, coenurus, cynosure, dasyurid, eremurus, ophiuroid, oxyuriasis, sciurid, squirrel, trichuriasis, from Greek ourā, tail;
    2. silurid, from Greek silouros, sheatfish, probably from ourā, tail (with an obscure first element).
[Pokorny ers‑ 340.]

Mouth. Oldest form *h3ōs‑, but precise preform uncertain.
  1. oral, os1, oscillate, osculate, osculum, ostiary, ostium, usher; inosculate, orifice, oronasal, orotund, oscitancy, peroral, from Latin ōs (stem ōr‑), mouth, face, orifice, and derivative ōstium (< suffixed form *ōs-to‑), door.
  2. Auriga, from Latin aurīga, charioteer (< *ōr-īg‑ "he who manages the (horse's) bit";-īg‑ lengthened from ig‑ driving, from *ag‑; see ag-) possibly from ōs-.
[Pokorny 1. ōus‑ 784.]

Bone. Oldest form *h2ost‑, with e-grade *h2est‑ colored to *h2ast‑.
  1. os2, osseous, ossicle, ossuary; ossifrage, ossify, from Latin os (stem oss‑), bone.
  2. osteo-, osteon; endosteum, exostosis, periosteum, synostosis, teleost, from Greek osteon, bone.
  3. Suffixed form *ost-r‑.
    1. ostracize, ostracod, ostracon; ostracoderm, periostracum, from Greek ostrakon, shell, potsherd;
    2. e-grade form *əest‑, becoming *ast‑. oyster, from Greek ostreon, oyster;
    3. astragal, astragalus, from Greek astragalos, vertebra, ball of the ankle joint, knucklebone, Ionic molding.
  4. Suffixed form *ost-n̥-ko‑. astaxanthin, from Greek ostakos, astakos, lobster.
[Pokorny ost(h)‑ 783.]

Also aus-.
Ear. Oldest form *h2ous‑, with e-grade *h2eus‑ colored to *h2aus‑.
  1. Suffixed form *ous-en‑. ear1, from Old English ēare, ear, from Germanic *auzōn‑.
  2. Suffixed form *aus-i‑. aural1, auricle, orecchiette; auriform, ormer, from Latin auris, ear.
  3. auscultation, scout1, from Latin auscultāre, to listen to (< *aus-klit-ā‑; *aus‑ + *kli-to‑, inclined; see klei-).
  4. Suffixed basic form *ous-os‑. otic, oto-; myosotis, parotid gland, from Greek ous (stem ōt‑), ear.
  5. Basic form *ous‑ in Greek compound *lag-ous‑ (see slēg-).
[Pokorny 2. ōus‑ 785.]

Sheep. Oldest form *h2owi‑.
  1. ewe, from Old English ēwe, eōwu, ewe, from Germanic *awi‑.
  2. ovine, from Latin ovis, sheep.
[Pokorny óu̯i-s 784.]

To protect, feed. Oldest form *peh2, colored to *pah2, becoming *pā‑.
Derivatives include fodder, forage, fur, food, foster, pasture, pantry, and company.
  1. Suffixed form *pā-trom.
    1. fodder, from Old English fōdor, fodder;
    2. forage, foray, fourragère, from Old French feurre, fodder;
    3. fur, furrier, from Old French forre, fuerre, trimming made from animal skin, fur (< "sheath, case, lining"). a-c all from Germanic *fōdram.
  2. Suffixed form *pā-dhlom (doublet of *pā-trom) pabulum, from Latin pābulum, food, fodder.
  3. Extended form *pāt‑.
    1. food, from Old English fōda, food, from Germanic *fōd‑, food;
    2. feed, from Old English fēdan, to feed, from Germanic denominative *fōdjan, to give food to;
    3. suffixed form *pāt-tro‑. foster, from Old English fōstor, food, nourishment, from Germanic *fōstra‑.
  4. Extended form *pās‑.
    1. Suffixed form *pās-sko‑. pasture; antipasto, repast, from Latin pāscere, to feed;
    2. suffixed form *pās-tor‑. pastern, pastor, pester, from Latin pāstor, shepherd;
    3. suffixed form *pās-t-ni‑. panada, panatela, panic grass, pannier, panocha, pantry, pastille, penuche; appanage, companion1, company, panforte, panko, from Latin pānis, bread.
  5. Suffixed form *pā-tor‑. bezoar, from Persian pād, protecting against, from Iranian *pātar‑ (Avestan pātar‑).
  6. Suffixed form *pā-won‑, protector. satrap, from Old Persian khshathra-pāvā, protector of the province.
[Pokorny pā‑ 787, 1. pō(i)‑ 839.]

Fire. Oldest form *peh2wr̥, colored to *pah2wr̥, with zero-grade *ph2ur‑ metathesized to *puh2r‑. Zero-grade form *pūr‑ (from *puh2r‑).
  1. fire, from Old English fȳr, fire, from Germanic suffixed form *fūr-i‑.
  2. pyre, pyretic, pyrites, pyro-, pyrosis, pyrrhotite; ekpyrotic, empyreal, from Greek pūr, fire.
[Pokorny peu̯ōr 828.]

Also pak-.
To fasten. Oldest forms *pag̑‑, *pak̑‑, becoming *pag‑, *pak‑ in centum languages.
Derivatives include fang, peace, pact, palisade, and travel.
  1. Lengthened-grade form *pāk‑. fay1, from Old English fēgan, to fit closely, from Germanic *fōgjan, to join, fit.
  2. Nasalized form *pa-n-g‑, also *pa-n-k‑.
      1. fang, from Old English fang, feng, plunder, booty, from Germanic *fangam, *fangiz;
      2. vang, from Dutch vangen, to catch, from remade Germanic verb *fangan;
      3. newfangled, from Middle English *-fangel, taken, akin to Old High German -fangolon, to close, from Germanic *fanglōn, to grasp. (i)-(iii) all derivatives of Germanic *fanhan, to seize.
    1. compact1, impact, impinge, spinto, from Latin pangere, to fasten.
  3. Root form *pā̆k‑.
    1. pace2, pax, pay1, peace; appease, pacific, pacify, from Latin pāx, peace (< "a binding together by treaty or agreement");
    2. pact, patio, from Latin pacīscī, to agree.
  4. Suffixed form *pak-slo‑.
    1. pale1, palisade, pawl, peel3, pole2; impale, travail, travel, from Latin pālus, stake (fixed in the ground);
    2. probably Latin pāla, spade palette, peel2.
  5. Lengthened-grade form *pāg‑.
    1. pagan, peasant, from Latin pāgus, "boundary staked out on the ground," district, village, country;
    2. page1, pageant, from Latin pāgina, "trellis to which a row of vines is fixed," hence (by metaphor) column of writing, page;
    3. propagate, from Latin prōpāgāre, to propagate (< "to fix before"; prō‑, before, in front; see per1);
    4. pectin, pegmatite; Areopagus, mastopexy, from Greek pēgnunai,