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bark 1 (bärk)
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n.
1. The harsh sound uttered by a dog.
2. A sound, such as a cough, that is similar to a dog's bark.
v. barked, bark·ing, barks
v.intr.
1. To utter a bark.
2. To make a sound similar to a bark: "The birds bark softly, sounding almost like young pups" (Charleston SC News and Courier).
3. To speak sharply; snap: "a spot where you can just drop in ... without anyone's barking at you for failing to plan ahead" (Andy Birsh).
4. To work as a barker, as at a carnival.
v.tr.
To utter in a loud, harsh voice: The quarterback barked out the signals.
Idiom:
bark up the wrong tree
To misdirect one's energies or attention.

[From Middle English berken, to bark, from Old English beorcan.]

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 
bark 2 (bärk)
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n.
1. The tough outer covering of the woody stems and roots of trees, shrubs, and other woody plants. It includes all tissues outside the vascular cambium.
2. A specific kind of bark used for a special purpose, as in tanning or medicine.
tr.v. barked, bark·ing, barks
1. To remove bark from (a tree or log).
2. To rub off the skin of; abrade: barked my shin on the car door.
3. To tan or dye (leather or fabric) by steeping in an infusion of bark.
4. To treat (a patient) using a medicinal bark infusion.

[Middle English, from Old English, from Old Norse bǫrkr, bark-; see bherəg- in the Appendix of Indo-European roots.]

barky adj.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 

Indo-European & Semitic Roots Appendices

    Thousands of entries in the dictionary include etymologies that trace their origins back to reconstructed proto-languages. You can obtain more information about these forms in our online appendices:

    Indo-European Roots

    Semitic Roots

    The Indo-European appendix covers nearly half of the Indo-European roots that have left their mark on English words. A more complete treatment of Indo-European roots and the English words derived from them is available in our Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.

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