The capital and largest city of Egypt, in the northeast part of the country on the Nile River. Old Cairo was built c. 642 as a military camp; the new city was founded c. 968 by the Fatimid dynasty and reached its greatest prosperity under the Mameluke sultans (13th-16th century).
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2020 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Indo-European & Semitic Roots Appendices
Thousands of entries in the dictionary include etymologies that trace their origins back to reconstructed proto-languages. You can obtain more information about these forms in our online appendices:
The Indo-European appendix covers nearly half of the Indo-European roots that have left their mark on English words. A more complete treatment of Indo-European roots and the English words derived from them is available in our Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.